Mode of inhibition of HIV-1 Integrase by a C-terminal domain-specific monoclonal antibody*

The Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.
Retrovirology (Impact Factor: 4.77). 02/2006; 3:34. DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-3-34
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To further our understanding of the structure and function of HIV-1 integrase (IN) we developed and characterized a library of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against this protein. One of these antibodies, mAb33, which is specific for the C-terminal domain, was found to inhibit HIV-1 IN processing activity in vitro; a corresponding Fv fragment was able to inhibit HIV-1 integration in vivo. Our subsequent studies, using heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, identified six solvent accessible residues on the surface of the C-terminal domain that were immobilized upon binding of the antibody, which were proposed to comprise the epitope. Here we test this hypothesis by measuring the affinity of mAb33 to HIV-1 proteins that contain Ala substitutions in each of these positions. To gain additional insight into the mode of inhibition we also measured the DNA binding capacity and enzymatic activities of the Ala substituted proteins.
We found that Ala substitution of any one of five of the putative epitope residues, F223, R224, Y226, I267, and I268, caused a decrease in the affinity of the mAb33 for HIV-1 IN, confirming the prediction from NMR data. Although IN derivatives with Ala substitutions in or near the mAb33 epitope exhibited decreased enzymatic activity, none of the epitope substitutions compromised DNA binding to full length HIV-1 IN, as measured by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Two of these derivatives, IN (I276A) and IN (I267A/I268A), exhibited both increased DNA binding affinity and uncharacteristic dissociation kinetics; these proteins also exhibited non-specific nuclease activity. Results from these investigations are discussed in the context of current models for how the C-terminal domain interacts with substrate DNA.
It is unlikely that inhibition of HIV-1 IN activity by mAb33 is caused by direct interaction with residues that are essential for substrate binding. Rather our findings are most consistent with a model whereby mAb33 binding distorts or constrains the structure of the C-terminal domain and/or blocks substrate binding indirectly. The DNA binding properties and non-specific nuclease activity of the I267A derivatives suggest that the C-terminal domain of IN normally plays an important role in aligning the viral DNA end for proper processing.

Download full-text


Available from: Mark D Andrake, Jul 02, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Despite decades of antiviral drug research and development, viruses still remain a top global healthcare problem. Compared to eukaryotic cells, viruses are composed by a limited numbers of proteins that, nevertheless, set up multiple interactions with cellular components, allowing the virus to take control of the infected cell. Each virus/host interaction can be considered as a therapeutical target for new antiviral drugs but, unfortunately, the systematic study of a so huge number of interactions is time-consuming and expensive, calling for models overcoming these drawbacks. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free optical technique to study biomolecular interactions in real time by detecting reflected light from a prism-gold film interface. Launched 20 years ago, SPR has become a nearly irreplaceable technology for the study of biomolecular interactions. Accordingly, SPR is increasingly used in the field of virology, spanning from the study of biological interactions to the identification of putative antiviral drugs. From the literature available, SPR emerges as an ideal link between conventional biological experimentation and system biology studies functional to the identification of highly connected viral or host proteins that act as nodal points in virus life cycle and thus considerable as therapeutical targets for the development of innovative antiviral strategies.
    Critical Reviews in Microbiology 09/2013; 41(2). DOI:10.3109/1040841X.2013.826177 · 6.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A recent report sought to demonstrate that acetylation of specific lysines within integrase (IN) by the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration and is essential for viral replication (A. Cereseto, L. Manganaro, M. I. Gutierrez, M. Terreni, A. Fittipaldi, M. Lusic, A. Marcello, and M. Giacca, EMBO J. 24:3070-3081, 2005). We can corroborate the efficient and specific acetylation of the IN carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) (amino acids 212 to 288) by p300 using purified recombinant components. Although arginine substitution mutagenesis of the isolated CTD confirms that the majority of p300 acetylation occurs at lysine residues 264, 266, and 273, the pattern of acetylation is not uniform and a hierarchy of reactivity can be established. Several combinatorial mutations of the CTD lysines modified by p300 in vitro were reconstructed into an otherwise infectious proviral plasmid clone and examined for viral growth and frequency of productive chromosomal integration. In contrast to the findings of Cereseto and coworkers, who used epitope-tagged viruses for their experiments, we find that an untagged mutant virus, IN K(264/266/273)R, is fully replication competent. This discrepancy may be explained by the use of an acidic epitope tag placed at the extreme carboxyl terminus of integrase, near the target site for acetylation. Although the tagged, wild-type virus is viable, the combination of this epitope tag with the RRR substitution mutation results in a replication-defective phenotype. Although IN belongs to the very small set of nonhistone proteins modified by HAT-mediated activity, an obligate role for acetylation at the reactive CTD lysines in HIV-1 IN cannot be confirmed.
    Journal of Virology 04/2007; 81(6):3012-7. DOI:10.1128/JVI.02257-06 · 4.65 Impact Factor