Article

Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss.

Department of Biochemistry, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA.
Nutrition & Metabolism (Impact Factor: 3.36). 02/2006; 3:24. DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-3-24
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006) separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

1 Bookmark
 · 
121 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) refers to elevated levels of triglycerides (TG) and small-dense low-density lipoprotein and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In addition, elevated levels of large TG rich very low-density lipoproteins, apolipoprotein B and oxidised low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and reduced levels of small high-density lipoproteins plays a critical role in AD. All three elements of AD per se have been recognised as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has shown excellent risk prediction of coronary heart disease than either of the two risk markers. Asian Indians have a higher prevalence of AD than western population due to higher physical inactivity, low exercise and diet deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The AD can be well managed by therapeutic lifestyle changes with increased physical activities, regular exercise, and diets low in carbohydrates and high in PUFA such as omega-3-fatty acids, as the primary intervention. This can be supplemented drug therapies such as statin monotherapy or combination therapy with niacin/fibrates. Rosuvastatin is the only statin, presently available, to effectively treat AD in diabetes and MS patients.
    03/2013; 17(6):969-976. DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.122600
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are a limited number of clinical interventions evaluating the effects of dietary cholesterol in individuals at elevated risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To investigate the effects of whole egg intake in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men (n = 12) and women (n = 25) with MetS were instructed to follow a moderate carbohydrate-restricted diet (<30% energy) and randomly assigned to consume either three whole eggs (EGG, n = 20) or egg substitute (SUB, n = 17)/d for 12 weeks. Dietary intake, MetS parameters, and body composition were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Total carbohydrate (P < .001) intake decreased in all participants over time. The EGG group consumed more dietary cholesterol (P < .001) and choline (P < .001) than the SUB group. MetS was reduced in both groups, with improvements noted in dyslipidemia and decreases in waist circumference (P < .01), weight (P < .001), and percent body fat (P < .001). Reductions in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (P < .001) and serum amyloid A (P < .05) were seen in the EGG group only. Notably, increases in dietary cholesterol were associated with reductions in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (r = -0.340, P = .04). Plasma C-reactive protein, adiponectin, interleukin-6 interleukin-10, and cell adhesion molecules were unaffected by the intervention. These results demonstrate that on a moderate carbohydrate background diet, accompanied by weight loss, the inclusion of whole eggs improves inflammation to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in those with MetS.
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 09/2013; 7(5):463-471. DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2013.03.008 · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Postprandial hyperlipemia produces long-term derangements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity which are strongly linked to atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to (1) provide a qualitative analysis of the available literature examining the dysregulation of postprandial lipid metabolism in the presence of obesity, (2) inspect the role of adiposity distribution and sex on postprandial lipid metabolism, and (3) examine the role of energy deficit (exercise-and/or energy restriction-mediated), isoenergetic low-carbohydrate diets, and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipid metabolism. We conclude from the literature that central adiposity primarily accounts for sex-related differences in postprandial lipemia and that aerobic exercise attenuates this response in obese or lean men and women to a similar extent through potentially unique mechanisms. In contrast, energy restriction produces only mild reductions in postprandial lipemia suggesting that exercise may be superior to energy restriction alone as a strategy for lowering postprandial lipemia. However, isoenergetic very low-carbohydrate diets and n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduce postprandial lipemia indicating that macronutrient manipulations reduce postprandial lipemia in the absence of energy restriction. Therefore, interactions between exercise/energy restriction and alterations in macronutrient content remain top priorities for the field to identify optimal behavioral treatments to reduce postprandial lipemia.
    Journal of nutrition and metabolism 06/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/902065

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
32 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014