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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary iron overload is mainly due to mutations of the HFE gene, implicated in most cases of hereditary hemochromatosis. Non-HFE-related hereditary iron overload is rare. It includes hereditary hemochromatosis related to mutations of other genes, ferroportin disease (also known as hemochromatosis type 4), and entities associated with specific clinical manifestations. Four genes have been implicated in hereditary hemochromatosis: HFE and TFR2 (which codes for the second transferrin receptor), both involved in adult forms of hereditary hemochromatosis, and HAMP and HJV, which code for hepcidin and hemojuvelin, respectively, and are responsible for juvenile hemochromatosis. All types of hereditary hemochromatosis share common clinical and biological characteristics, including an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, elevation of transferrin saturation as the initial manifestation, hepatic parenchymal iron overload, and sensitivity to therapeutic phlebotomy. They are due to hyperabsorption of dietary iron and are linked to a deficit of hepcidin, the principal iron regulator in the body. Ferroportin disease is a special dominantly inherited clinical form of iron overload due to mutations of the SLC40A1 gene. Its expression differs significantly from that of hereditary hemochromatosis, and its mechanism is related to impairment of iron release from reticuloendothelial cells. Other causes of non-HFE-related hereditary iron overload are usually associated with recognizable clinical manifestations, such as anemia or neurological disorders.
    La Presse Médicale 10/2007; 36(9 Pt 2):1279-91. DOI:10.1016/j.lpm.2007.01.042 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DMT1 deficiency causes microcytic hypochromic anemia due to decreased erythroid iron utilization. Anemia is present from birth. Transferrin saturation is high and serum ferritin is mildly elevated, despite liver iron overload. DMT1 deficiency must be considered in the differential diagnosis of microcytic hypochromic anemia observed in the newborn period.
    The Journal of pediatrics 02/2008; 152(1):136-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.08.041 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) include a diverse group of gene-encoded molecules that play a role in innate defense in many organisms. Evolutionary analyses of the AMP genes can be challenging because of gene duplication and diversification. Recently discovered, hepcidins are small, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that also function as hormonal regulators of iron homeostasis. In this paper we investigated the organization, expression and molecular evolution of hepcidin. From searches of the literature and public genomic databases we collected 68 different hepcidin gene products from 51 different species, all among the vertebrates. Although some species have multiple hepcidin homologues, we suggest that each contains only one copy that functions as an iron regulator. Despite the recent report of hepcidin sequences in the pigeon (Fu, Y.M., Li, S.P., Wu, Y.F., Chang, Y.Z., 2007. Identification and expression analysis of hepcidin-like cDNAs from pigeon (Columba livia). Mol. Cell. Biochem. 305, 191-197.), searches of the chicken genomic, EST, and HTGS databases did not reveal any evidence of the presence of this gene in birds. This, along with the absence of reported avian transferrin receptor 2 and hemojuvelin sequences, suggests that iron homeostasis in birds may be regulated by an alternative mechanism.
    Gene 06/2008; 415(1-2):40-8. DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2008.02.016 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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