Influence of nonsynonymous polymorphisms of UGT1A8 and UGT2B7 metabolizing enzymes on the formation of phenolic and acyl glucuronides of mycophenolic acid.
ABSTRACT Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a standard immunosuppressive drug approved for clinical use in the prevention of acute allograft rejection after organ transplantation. This study examines the role of the genetic variants of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A8 and 2B7 enzymes involved in the formation of the primary metabolite of MPA, the inactive phenolic glucuronide (MPAG), and the reactive acyl glucuronide (AcMPAG). The first exon of UGT1A8 was first resequenced in the region encoding for the substrate binding domain in 254 Caucasians and 41 African Americans. Eight nonsynonymous changes were observed and led to the following amino acid substitutions: S43L, H53N, S126G, A144V, A173G, A231T, T240A, and C277Y. Thirteen haplotypes were inferred, comprising only two previously described alleles, namely, UGT1A8*2 (A173G) and UGT1A8*3 (C277Y). Upon stable expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, the UGT1A8*3 (C277Y), *5 (G173A240), *7 (A231T), *8 (S43L), and *9 (N53G) proteins were associated with the most profound decreases in the formation of MPAG and AcMPAG, indicating that these amino acids are critical for substrate binding and enzyme function. Altogether, the low-activity UGT1A8 enzymes are carried by 2.8 to 4.8% of the population. The variant of the UGT2B7 protein (UGT2B7*2 Y268), the main enzyme involved in the formation of AcMPAG, demonstrated a catalytic efficiency comparable with that of UGT2B7*1 (H268). In conclusion, although the common UGT2B7*2 variant is predicted to have limited impact, several UGT1A8 variants identified may potentially account for the large interindividual variance in MMF pharmacokinetics and deserve further clinical investigations.
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ABSTRACT: UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) catalyze the biotransformation of many endobiotics and xenobiotics, and are coded by polymorphic genes. However, knowledge about the effects of these polymorphisms is rarely used for the individualization of drug therapy. Here, we present a quantitative systematic review of clinical studies on the impact of UGT variants on drug metabolism to clarify the potential for genotype-adjusted therapy recommendations. Data on UGT polymorphisms and dose-related pharmacokinetic parameters in man were retrieved by a systematic search in public databases. Mean estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters were extracted for each group of carriers of UGT variants to assess their effect size. Pooled estimates and relative confidence bounds were computed with a random-effects meta-analytic approach whenever multiple studies on the same variant, ethnic group, and substrate were available. Information was retrieved on 30 polymorphic metabolic pathways involving 10 UGT enzymes. For irinotecan and mycophenolic acid a wealth of data was available for assessing the impact of genetic polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics under different dosages, between ethnicities, under comedication, and under toxicity. Evidence for effects of potential clinical relevance exists for 19 drugs, but the data are not sufficient to assess effect size with the precision required to issue dose recommendations. In conclusion, compared to other drug metabolizing enzymes much less systematic research has been conducted on the polymorphisms of UGT enzymes. However, there is evidence of the existence of large monogenetic functional polymorphisms affecting pharmacokinetics and suggesting a potential use of UGT polymorphisms for the individualization of drug therapy.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 09/2013; · 7.79 Impact Factor
- Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 11/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Different associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cellular target, metabolism enzymes or transport proteins, and biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) or adverse events have been reported in transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil. This work aimed to study these in patients on enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS). The study included 189 renal transplant patients from the DOMINOS trial. Fifteen SNPs in IMPDH2, IMPDH1, ABCC2, SLCO1B3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, CYP2C8, HUS1, and IL12A were genotyped in all patients. Associations between SNPs and the first event of BPAR or diarrhea were investigated using multivariate logistic regressions. Associations between SNPs and leukopenia or anemia at nine different visits between days 0 and 190 after transplantation were studied using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression models. Multivariate analyses showed that the CYP2C8 rs11572076 wild-type genotype was associated significantly with a lower risk of leukopenia [GG vs. GA: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.14 (0.03, 0.59), P=0.00783]. Higher EC-MPS doses and the UGT2B7 c.-840 G>A variant allele were associated with an increased risk of anemia [EC-MPS per unit dose increase: 1.004 (1.003, 1.005), P<0.0001; UGT2B7 GA vs. AA: 1.65 (1.12, 2.43), P=0.01043; GG vs. AA: 1.88 (1.23, 2.88), P=0.00343]. However, no significant association was found between any of the SNPs studied and diarrhea or BPAR. Two pharmacogenetic associations reported previously with mycophenolate mofetil were found in a population of 189 renal transplant patients treated with EC-MPS.Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 03/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor