Article

How effective are rapid access chest pain clinics? Prognosis of incident angina and non-cardiac chest pain in 8762 consecutive patients.

Newham University Hospital, London, UK.
Heart (British Cardiac Society) (Impact Factor: 6.02). 05/2007; 93(4):458-63. DOI: 10.1136/hrt.2006.090894
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine whether rapid access chest pain clinics are clinically effective by comparison of coronary event rates in patients diagnosed with angina with rates in patients diagnosed with non-cardiac chest pain and the general population.
Multicentre cohort study of consecutive patients with chest pain attending the rapid access chest pain clinics (RACPCs) of six hospitals in England.
8762 patients diagnosed with either non-cardiac chest pain (n = 6396) or incident angina without prior myocardial infarction (n = 2366) at first cardiological assessment, followed up for a median of 2.57 (interquartile range 1.96-4.15) years.
Primary end point--death due to coronary heart disease (International Classification of Diseases (ICD)10 I20-I25) or acute coronary syndrome (non-fatal myocardial infarction (ICD10 I21-I23), hospital admission with unstable angina (I24.0, I24.8, I24.9)). Secondary end points--all-cause mortality (ICD I20), cardiovascular death (ICD10 I00-I99), or non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke (I60-I69).
The cumulative probability of the primary end point in patients diagnosed with angina was 16.52% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.88% to 18.32%) after 3 years compared with 2.73% (95% CI 2.29% to 3.25%) in patients with non-cardiac chest pain. Coronary standardised mortality ratios for men and women with angina aged <65 years were 3.52 (95% CI 1.98 to 5.07) and 4.39 (95% CI 1.14 to 7.64). Of the 599 patients who had the primary end point, 194 (32.4%) had been diagnosed with non-cardiac chest pain. These patients were younger, less likely to have typical symptoms, more likely to be south Asian and more likely to have a normal resting electrocardiogram than patients with angina who had the primary end point.
RACPCs are successful in identifying patients with incident angina who are at high coronary risk, but there is a need to reduce misdiagnosis and improve outcomes in patients diagnosed with non-cardiac chest pain who accounted for nearly one third of cardiac events during follow-up.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Gene Feder, Jun 16, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
108 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The recognition of coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients who report chest pain remains difficult in primary care. This study investigates the association between chest pain (specified, unspecified or musculoskeletal) and prodromes (dyspepsia, fatigue or dyspnoea), with first-ever acute CAD, and increased longer term cardiovascular risk. Cohort study. Anonymised clinical data recorded electronically by general practitioners from 140 primary care surgeries in London (UK) between April 2008 and April 2013. Data were extracted for all patients aged 30 years and over at the beginning of the study period, registered in the surgeries. Clinical data included chest pain, dyspepsia, dyspnoea and fatigue, first-ever CAD and long-term cardiovascular risk (QRisk2). Regression models were used to analyse the association between chest pain together with prodromes and CAD and QRisk2≥20%. 354 052 patients were included in the study. 4842 patients had first-ever CAD of which 270 reported chest pain in the year before the acute event. 257 019 patients had QRisk2 estimations. Chest pain was associated with a higher risk of CAD. HRs: 21.12 (16.68 to 26.76), p<0.001; 7.51 (6.49 to 8.68), p<0.001; and 1.84 (1.14 to 3.00), p<0.001 for specified, unspecified and musculoskeletal chest pain. Dyspepsia, dyspnoea or fatigue was also associated with a higher risk of CAD. Chest pain of all subtypes, dyspepsia and dyspnoea were also associated with an increased 10-year cardiovascular risk of 20% or more. All patients with chest pain, including those with atypical symptoms, require careful assessment for acute and longer term cardiovascular risk. Prodromes may have independent diagnostic value in the estimation of cardiovascular disease risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    BMJ Open 04/2015; 5(4):e007251. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007251 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rapid access chest pain clinics have facilitated the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease and angina. Despite this important service provision, coronary heart disease continues to be under-diagnosed and many patients are left untreated and at risk. Recent advances in imaging technology have now led to the widespread use of noninvasive computed tomography, which can be used to measure coronary artery calcium scores and perform coronary angiography in one examination. However, this technology has not been robustly evaluated in its application to the clinic.Methods/designThe SCOT-HEART study is an open parallel group prospective multicentre randomized controlled trial of 4,138 patients attending the rapid access chest pain clinic for evaluation of suspected cardiac chest pain. Following clinical consultation, participants will be approached and randomized 1:1 to receive standard care or standard care plus >=64-multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography and coronary calcium score. Randomization will be conducted using a web-based system to ensure allocation concealment and will incorporate minimization. The primary endpoint of the study will be the proportion of patients diagnosed with angina pectoris secondary to coronary heart disease at 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints will include the assessment of subsequent symptoms, diagnosis, investigation and treatment. In addition, long-term health outcomes, safety endpoints, such as radiation dose, and health economic endpoints will be assessed. Assuming a clinic rate of 27.0% for the diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease, we will need to recruit 2,069 patients per group to detect an absolute increase of 4.0% in the rate of diagnosis at 80% power and a two-sided P value of 0.05. The SCOT-HEART study is currently recruiting participants and expects to report in 2014. DISCUSSION: This is the first study to look at the implementation of computed tomography in the patient care pathway that is outcome focused. This study will have major implications for the management of patients with cardiovascular disease.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01149590.
    Trials 10/2012; 13(1):184. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-13-184 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Unexplained chest pain is a common condition. Despite negative findings, a large number of these patients will continue to suffer from chest pain after being investigated at cardiac outpatient clinics. Unexplained chest pain covers many possible complaints, and diagnosing a single cause for a patient's pain is often described as difficult, as there are a number of possible factors that can contribute to the condition. For health professionals to meet patients' expectations, they must know more about the information needs of patients with unexplained chest pain. The aim of this study was to describe information needs among patients with unexplained chest pain and how those needs were met by health professionals during medical consultations. A qualitative design was used. Data were collected by means of seven individual interviews with four women and three men, aged 21-62 years. The interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The results are described in two subthemes, ie, "experiencing lack of focus on individual problems" and "experiencing unanswered questions". These were further abstracted under the main theme "experiencing unmet information needs". Existing models of consultations should be complemented to include a person-centered approach to meeting patients' beliefs, perceptions, and expressions of feelings related to experiencing unexplained chest pain. This is in line with a biopsychosocial model with active patient participation, shared decision-making, and a multidisciplinary approach. Such an approach is directly within the domain of nursing, and aims to take into account patient experience.
    Patient Preference and Adherence 09/2013; 7:915-23. DOI:10.2147/PPA.S47120 · 1.49 Impact Factor