We report clinical findings and molecular cytogenetic analyses for two patients with translocations [t(14;17)(p12;p12) and t(15;17)(p12;p13.2)], in which the chromosome 17 breakpoints map at a large low-copy repeat (LCR) and a breakage-prone TRE-2 (USP6) oncogene, respectively. In family 1, a 6-year-old girl and her 5-year-old brother were diagnosed with mental retardation, short stature, dysmorphic features, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). G-banding chromosome analysis showed a der(14)t(14;17)(p12;p12) in both siblings, inherited from their father, a carrier of the balanced translocation. Chromosome microarray and FISH analyses revealed that the PMP22 gene was duplicated. The chromosome 17 breakpoint was mapped within an approximately 383 kb LCR17pA that is known to also be the site of several breakpoints of different chromosome aberrations including the evolutionary translocation t(4;19) in Gorilla gorilla. In family two, a patient with developmental delay, subtle dysmorphic features, ventricular enlargement with decreased periventricular white matter, mild findings of bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria and a very small anterior commissure, a cryptic duplication including the Miller-Dieker syndrome region was identified by chromosome microarray analysis. The chromosome 17 breakpoint was mapped by FISH at the TRE-2 oncogene. Both partner chromosome breakpoints were mapped on the short arm acrocentric heterochromatin within or distal to the rRNA cluster, distal to the region commonly rearranged in Robertsonian translocations. We propose that TRE-2 together with LCR17pA, located approximately 10 Mb apart, also generated the evolutionary gorilla translocation t(4;19). Our results support previous observations that the USP6 oncogene, LCRs, and repetitive DNA sequences play a significant role in the origin of constitutional chromosome aberrations and primate genome evolution.
"In our data, several genes involved in micro-CNAs (9 genes or 10% of all involved genes) mapped to CNAs in close proximity of known break points or hot spots in chromosomes. Those CNAs were either DNA copy number gains (USP6, NAALADL2, BCAS4, DEPDC1B/ELOVL7, BCAS3) (Figure 2C, 3A and 3B) or losses (FAM190A, MACROD2, MTAP) (Figure 2D) [23-31]. Moreover, using the 1 M array CGH platform, we observed several sites of apparent intra-genic alterations in DNA copy number, suggestive of DNA breakage within genes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular alterations critical to development of cancer include mutations, copy number alterations (amplifications and deletions) as well as genomic rearrangements resulting in gene fusions. Massively parallel next generation sequencing, which enables the discovery of such changes, uses considerable quantities of genomic DNA (> 5 ug), a serious limitation in ever smaller clinical samples. However, a commonly available microarray platforms such as array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) allows the characterization of gene copy number at a single gene resolution using much smaller amounts of genomic DNA. In this study we evaluate the sensitivity of ultra-dense array CGH platforms developed by Agilent, especially that of the 1 million probe array (1 M array), and their application when whole genome amplification is required because of limited sample quantities.
We performed array CGH on whole genome amplified and not amplified genomic DNA from MCF-7 breast cancer cells, using 244 K and 1 M Agilent arrays. The ADM-2 algorithm was used to identify micro-copy number alterations that measured less than 1 Mb in genomic length.
DNA from MCF-7 breast cancer cells was analyzed for micro-copy number alterations, defined as measuring less than 1 Mb in genomic length. The 4-fold extra resolution of the 1 M array platform relative to the less dense 244 K array platform, led to the improved detection of copy number variations (CNVs) and micro-CNAs. The identification of intra-genic breakpoints in areas of DNA copy number gain signaled the possible presence of gene fusion events. However, the ultra-dense platforms, especially the densest 1 M array, detect artifacts inherent to whole genome amplification and should be used only with non-amplified DNA samples.
This is a first report using 1 M array CGH for the discovery of cancer genes and biomarkers. We show the remarkable capacity of this technology to discover CNVs, micro-copy number alterations and even gene fusions. However, these platforms require excellent genomic DNA quality and do not tolerate relatively small imperfections related to the whole genome amplification.
BMC Medical Genomics 01/2011; 4(1):16. DOI:10.1186/1755-8794-4-16 · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent molecular cytogenetic data have shown that the constitution of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) may be more complicated than previously thought. The complicated nature of these rearrangements challenges the accurate delineation of the chromosomal breakpoints and mechanisms involved. Here, we report a molecular cytogenetic analysis of two patients with congenital anomalies and unbalanced de novo CCRs involving chromosome 17p using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In the first patient, a 4-month-old boy with developmental delay, hypotonia, growth retardation, coronal synostosis, mild hypertelorism, and bilateral club feet, we found a duplication of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) chromosome regions, inverted insertion of the Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome region into the SMS region, and two microdeletions including a terminal deletion of 17p. The latter, together with a duplication of 21q22.3-qter detected by array CGH, are likely the unbalanced product of a translocation t(17;21)(p13.3;q22.3). In the second patient, an 8-year-old girl with mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly and mild dysmorphic features, we identified four submicroscopic interspersed 17p duplications. All 17 breakpoints were examined in detail by FISH analysis. We found that four of the breakpoints mapped within known low-copy repeats (LCRs), including LCR17pA, middle SMS-REP/LCR17pB block, and LCR17pC. Our findings suggest that the LCR burden in proximal 17p may have stimulated the formation of these CCRs and, thus, that genome architectural features such as LCRs may have been instrumental in the generation of these CCRs.
Human Genetics 08/2007; 121(6):697-709. DOI:10.1007/s00439-007-0359-6 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Segmental duplications or low-copy repeats (LCRs) constitute approximately 5% of the sequenced portion of the human genome and are associated with many human congenital anomaly disorders. The low-copy repeats on chromosome 22q11.2 (LCR22s) mediate chromosomal rearrangements resulting in deletions, duplications and translocations. The evolutionary mechanisms leading to LCR22 formation is unknown. Four genes, USP18, BCR, GGTLA and GGT, map adjacent to the LCR22s and pseudogene copies are located within them. It has been hypothesized that gene duplication occurred during primate evolution, followed by recombination events, forming pseudogene copies. We investigated whether gene duplication could be detected in non-human hominoid species. FISH mapping was performed using probes to the four functional gene loci. There was evidence for a single copy in humans but additional copies in hominoid species. We then compared LCR22 copy number using LCR22 FISH probes. Lineage specific LCR22 variation was detected in the hominoid species supporting the hypothesis. To independently validate initial findings, real time PCR, and screening of gorilla BAC library filters were performed. This was compared to array comparative genome hybridization data available. The most striking finding was a dramatic amplification of LCR22s in the gorilla. The LCR22s localized to the telomeric or subtelomeric bands of gorilla chromosomes. The most parsimonious explanation is that the LCR22s became amplified by inter-chromosomal recombination between telomeric bands. In summary, our results are consistent with a lineage specific coupling between gene and LCR22 duplication events. The LCR22s thus serve as an important model for evolution of genome variation.
Human Molecular Genetics 12/2007; 16(21):2560-71. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddm197 · 6.39 Impact Factor
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