Analysis of gross-chromosomal rearrangements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT Cells utilize numerous DNA metabolic pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints to maintain the integrity of their genome. Failure of these mechanisms can lead to genome instability, abnormal cell proliferation, and cell death. This chapter describes a method for the measurement of the rate of accumulating gross-chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs) in haploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The isolation of cells with GCRs relies on the simultaneous loss of two counterselectable markers, CAN1 and URA3, within a nonessential region on the left arm of chromosome V. Healing of DNA breaks by de novo telomere addition, translocations, large interstitial deletions, and chromosome fusion has been detected using a PCR-based procedure for the mapping and amplification of breakpoint junctions, which is also described in detail here. This GCR analysis provides an effective tool for the assessment of the contribution by multiple cellular mechanisms to the maintenance of genome integrity.
SourceAvailable from: Kristina H Schmidt[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Exo1 belongs to the Rad2 family of structure-specific nucleases and possesses 5′–3′ exonuclease activity on double-stranded DNA substrates. Exo1 interacts physically with the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins Msh2 and Mlh1 and is involved in the excision of the mispaired nucleotide. Independent of its role in MMR, Exo1 contributes to long-range resection of DNA double-strand break (DSB) ends to facilitate their repair by homologous recombination (HR), and was recently identified as a component of error-free DNA damage tolerance pathways. Here, we show that Exo1 activity increases the hydroxyurea sensitivity of cells lacking Pol32, a subunit of DNA polymerases δ and ζ. Both, phospho-mimicking and dephospho-mimicking exo1 mutants act as hypermorphs, as evidenced by an increase in HU sensitivity of pol32Δ cells, suggesting that they are trapped in an active form and that phosphorylation of Exo1 at residues S372, S567, S587, S692 is necessary, but insufficient, for the accurate regulation of Exo1 activity at stalled replication forks. In contrast, neither phosphorylation status is important for Exo1's role in MMR or in the suppression of genome instability in cells lacking Sgs1 helicase. This ability of an EXO1 deletion to suppress the HU hypersensitivity of pol32Δ cells is in contrast to the negative genetic interaction between deletions of EXO1 and POL32 in MMS-treated cells as well as the role of EXO1 in DNA-damage treated rad53 and mec1 mutants.DNA Repair 10/2014; 24. DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2014.10.004 · 3.36 Impact Factor