Prescribing aerobic exercise for the regulation of postprandial lipid metabolism : current research and recommendations.
ABSTRACT Prolonged presence of elevated plasma triglycerides (TGs) during the postprandial period has been suggested to increase the risk for coronary artery disease. Aerobic exercise attenuates postprandial lipaemia and this has generally been described as a short-term effect of the exercise. Effects of exercise on postprandial lipaemia have mostly been investigated, and documented, with large exercise-induced energy expenditures (i.e. 1000 kcal). The exact mechanisms involved in the attenuation of postprandial lipaemia with exercise are not completely understood, but it appears that at least two mechanisms are involved: a decrease in TG secretion by the liver and an increase in plasma TG clearance by the muscle. Changes in the metabolism of other lipids, such as those in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, have been documented only when the exercise is performed some hours before the fat meal. Although factors such as the physical fitness and percentage body fat of an individual are likely to also be involved, the most important factors determining the magnitude of the attenuation in postprandial lipaemia appear to be the magnitude of the exercise-induced energy expenditure and the intensity of exercise. To date, the evidence suggests that healthy individuals can generally induce favourable changes in postprandial lipaemia with aerobic exercise that: (i) is completed during the period extending from 16 hours before a meal through 1.5 hours after a meal; (ii) is of moderate intensity; and (iii) results in an energy expenditure of approximately 500 kcal (or more).
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ABSTRACT: High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) such as the 30-s Wingate test attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), however, the ability of shorter versions of HIIE to reduce postprandial TG is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-s sprinting bouts of HIIE on blood TG levels of 12 females after consumption of a high-fat meal (HFM) was examined. Twelve young, sedentary women (BMI 25.1 ± 2.3 kg/m2; age 21.3 ± 2.1 years) completed a maximal oxygen uptake test and then on different days underwent either an exercise or a no-exercise postprandial TG condition. Both conditions involved consuming a HFM after a 12-hr fast. The HFM, in milkshake form provided 4170 kJ (993 Kcal) of energy and 98 g fat. Order was counter-balanced. In the exercise condition participants completed 20-min of HIIE cycling consisting of repeated bouts of 8 s sprint cycling (100-115 rpm) and 12 s of active rest (easy pedaling) 14 hr before consuming the HFM. Blood samples were collected hourly after the HFM for 4 hr. Total postprandial TG was 13% lower, p = .004, in the exercise (5.84 ± 1.08 mmol L-1 4 h-1)compared to the no-exercise condition (6.71 ± 1.63 mmol L-1 4 h-1). In conclusion, HIIE significantly attenuated postprandial TG in sedentary young women.International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 10/2013; 24(1). DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.2013-0094 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on postprandial lipemia according to allelic variants of the apolipoprotein E gene. METHODS: Three groups of 10 healthy men each were formed based genotyping of the APOE gene, rested or performed 500 Kcal tests in a random sequence separated by a minimum 48 h interval, as follows: (a) no exercise (control), (b) intense intermittent exercise, (c) moderate continuous exercise. Each test series was completed 30-min before ingestion of a high-fat meal (1 g fat/kg). Venous blood was collected before and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after the high-fat meal. Postprandial lipemia was assessed using the area under the curve approach as well as the kinetic profile of mean lipid variables. Statistical significance was adopted at P ≤ 0.05 level. RESULTS: The main results show that, in the moderate continuous exercise, total postprandial cholesterolemia was higher in ɛ4 than in ɛ2 carriers, whereas under intense intermittent exercise, total and LDL cholesterolemia were higher in ɛ4 than in ɛ2 and ɛ3 carriers. There was no difference in the lipemic profile of the subjects across APOE genotypes at baseline. CONCLUSION: Moderate and intense exercise were effective in attenuating PPL in both ɛ2 and ɛ3 subjects, with ɛ2 subjects being more susceptible to the lipid lowering effect of moderate training than ɛ3 subjects. Carriers of the ɛ4 allele, however, showed no attenuation of postprandial lipemia.Atherosclerosis 04/2013; 229(1). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.03.027 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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