Management of hepatitis C virus coinfection in HIV-infected persons.
ABSTRACT Approximately 300,000 patients in the United States are coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). More rapid progression of HCV-related liver disease is seen in coinfected patients than in HCV-monoinfected patients. Since the introduction of potent antiretroviral therapy, liver disease has become a leading cause of death in HIV-infected patients. Therefore, more aggressive management of HCV-related liver disease is essential in HIV-positive patients. Recently, several trials have established the superiority of pegylated interferon alfa in combination with ribavirin to standard interferon with ribavirin for treatment of HCV infection in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients. Sustained virologic response (SVR) rates were only 14% to 29% in genotype 1 and 43% to 73% in genotype 2 and 3 HCV with 48 weeks of combination therapy. Absence of an early virologic response determined at 12 weeks can limit treatment exposure in patients destined not to achieve an SVR. The risk of interactions between drugs used to treat hepatitis C and those for HIV, such as between ribavirin and didanosine, needs to be considered before initiating treatment in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients.
- Gastroenterology and Hepatology 06/2007; 3(6 Suppl 20):4-32.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To screen for the co-infection of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients in southern India. Five hundred consecutive HIV infected patients were screened for Hepatitis B Virus (HBsAg and HBV-DNA) and Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV and HCV-RNA) using commercially available ELISA kits; HBsAg, HBeAg/anti-HBe (Biorad laboratories, USA) and anti-HCV (Murex Diagnostics, UK). The HBV-DNA PCR was performed to detect the surface antigen region (pre S-S). HCV-RNA was detected by RT-PCR for the detection of the constant 5' putative non-coding region of HCV. HBV co-infection was detected in 45/500 (9%) patients and HCV co-infection in 11/500 (2.2%) subjects. Among the 45 co-infected patients only 40 patients could be studied, where the detection rates of HBe was 55% (22/40), antiHBe was 45% (18/40) and HBV-DNA was 56% (23/40). Among 11 HCV co-infected subjects, 6 (54.5%) were anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive, while 3 (27.2%) were positive for anti-HCV alone and 2 (18%) were positive for HCV RNA alone. Since the principal routes for HIV transmission are similar to that followed by the hepatotropic viruses, as a consequence, infections with HBV and HCV are expected in HIV infected patients. Therefore, it would be advisable to screen for these viruses in all the HIV infected individuals and their sexual partners at the earliest.World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2007; 13(37):5015-20. · 2.43 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and disease-related complications - among them cirrhosis and liver failure - pose a particular management challenge. Some of these patients may fail to respond to current therapy (non-responders), and some are affected so severely that treatment puts them at an unacceptable risk for complications. Treatment with pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) plus ribavirin improves hepatic enzyme levels and eradicates the virus in approximately 50% of patients; however, a significant number of patients do not respond to therapy or relapse following treatment discontinuation. Several viral, hepatic and patient-related factors influence response to IFN therapy; many of these factors cannot be modified to improve long-term outcomes. Identifying risk factors and measuring viral load early in the treatment can help to predict response to IFN therapy and determine the need to modify or discontinue treatment. Retreatment options for patients who have failed therapy are limited. Retreatment with peg-IFN has been successful in some patients who exhibit an inadequate response to conventional IFN treatment, particularly those who have relapsed. Consensus IFN, another option in treatment-resistant patients, has demonstrated efficacy in the retreatment of non-responders and relapsers. Although the optimal duration of retreatment and the benefits and safety of maintenance therapy have not been determined, an extended duration is likely needed. This article reviews the risk factors for HCV treatment resistance and discusses the assessment and management of difficult-to-treat patients.Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 01/2008; 27(10):1297-310. DOI:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2007.01613.x · 4.41 Impact Factor