Construction and characterization of soluble, cleaved, and stabilized trimeric Env proteins based on HIV type 1 Env subtype A.
ABSTRACT The generation of an antibody response capable of neutralizing a broad range of clinical isolates remains an important goal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development. Envelope glycoprotein (Env)-based vaccine candidates will also need to take into account the extensive genetic diversity of circulating HIV-1 strains. We describe here the generation of soluble, stabilized, proteolytically cleaved, trimeric forms of Env (SOSIP gp140 proteins) based on contemporary Env subtype A viruses from East Africa. We discuss issues associated with the construction, purification, and characterization of such complex proteins; not all env sequences allow the expression of trimeric proteins. However, stabilized trimers from one such protein, KNH1144 SOSIP gp140, were successfully made. These proteins are now being prepared for preclinical immunogenicity studies.
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ABSTRACT: The few antibodies that can potently neutralize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recognize the limited number of envelope glycoprotein epitopes exposed on infectious virions. These native envelope glycoprotein complexes comprise three gp120 subunits noncovalently and weakly associated with three gp41 moieties. The individual subunits induce neutralizing antibodies inefficiently but raise many nonneutralizing antibodies. Consequently, recombinant envelope glycoproteins do not elicit strong antiviral antibody responses, particularly against primary HIV-1 isolates. To try to develop recombinant proteins that are better antigenic mimics of the native envelope glycoprotein complex, we have introduced a disulfide bond between the C-terminal region of gp120 and the immunodominant segment of the gp41 ectodomain. The resulting gp140 protein is processed efficiently, producing a properly folded envelope glycoprotein complex. The association of gp120 with gp41 is now stabilized by the supplementary intermolecular disulfide bond, which forms with approximately 50% efficiency. The gp140 protein has antigenic properties which resemble those of the virion-associated complex. This type of gp140 protein may be worth evaluating for immunogenicity as a component of a multivalent HIV-1 vaccine.Journal of Virology 02/2000; 74(2):627-43. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A critical priority for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development is standardization of reagents and assays for evaluation of immune responses elicited by candidate vaccines. To provide a panel of viral reagents from multiple vaccine trial sites, 60 international HIV-1 isolates were expanded in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and characterized both genetically and biologically. Ten isolates each from clades A, B, C, and D and 10 isolates each from CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG were prepared from individuals whose HIV-1 infection was evaluated by complete genome sequencing. The main criterion for selection was that the candidate isolate was pure clade or pure circulating recombinant. After expansion in culture, the complete envelope (gp160) of each isolate was verified by sequencing. The 50% tissue culture infectious dose and p24 antigen concentration for each viral stock were determined; no correlation between these two biologic parameters was found. Syncytium formation in MT-2 cells and CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptor usage were determined for all isolates. Isolates were also screened for neutralization by soluble CD4, a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies, and a pool of HIV-1-positive patient sera. The panel consists of 49 nonsyncytium-inducing isolates that use CCR5 as a major coreceptor and 11 syncytium-inducing isolates that use only CXCR4 or both coreceptors. Neutralization profiles suggest that the panel contains both neutralization-sensitive and -resistant isolates. This collection of HIV-1 isolates represents the six major globally prevalent strains, is exceptionally large and well characterized, and provides an important resource for standardization of immunogenicity assessment in HIV-1 vaccine trials.Journal of Virology 06/2005; 79(10):6089-101. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Efforts to understand the molecular basis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein function have been hampered by the inability to generate sufficient quantities of homogeneous material. We now report on the high level expression, purification, and characterization of soluble HIV gp140 ectodomain proteins in Chinese hamster ovary-Lec18.104.22.168 cells. Gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation show that the uncleaved ADA strain-derived gp140 proteins are trimeric without further modification required to maintain oligomers. These spike proteins are native as judged by soluble CD4 (sCD4) (K(D) = 1-2 nm) and monoclonal antibody binding studies using surface plasmon resonance. CD4 ligation induces conformational change in the trimer, exposing the chemokine receptor binding site as assessed by 17b monoclonal antibody reactivity. Lack of anti-cooperativity in sCD4-ADA trimer interaction distinct from that observed with sCD4-SIV mac32H implies quaternary structural differences in ground states of their respective spike proteins.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2001; 276(43):39577-85. · 4.65 Impact Factor