Persistent effect of red cell transfusion on health-related quality of life after cardiac surgery
ABSTRACT Although red blood cell transfusion has been associated with an increase in early morbid outcomes and reduced long-term survival after cardiac surgery, its relationship to functional quality of life after surgery has not been previously explored. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between perioperative red blood cell and component transfusion and functional health-related quality of life 6 to 12 months after cardiac surgery.
Of 12,536 patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures between May 1995 and January 1999, 7,321 completed a self-administered Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) survey preoperatively and least one follow-up survey at nominally 6 or 12 months postoperatively. The influence of baseline DASI, preoperative risk factors, clinical status, laboratory values, operative events, and postoperative morbidities on follow-up DASI were examined with ordinal regression modeling.
After adjustment for preoperative DASI, demographic, cardiac and noncardiac comorbidity, type of surgery, postoperative complications, and interval between follow-up DASI, during which patients continued to improve (p < 0.0001), postoperative functional status after cardiac surgery was incrementally worse the more perioperative red cells (p < 0.0001) and platelets (p = 0.02) that had been transfused.
Red blood cell and platelet transfusion have an unintended persistently negative risk-adjusted effect on health-related quality of life after cardiac surgery that extends well beyond initial hospitalization. Reductions in functional recovery paralleled increasing units of red blood cells transfused.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Eugene H Blackstone, May 29, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Timothy J Mcmahon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transfusion of banked red blood cells (RBCs) has been associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. Storage-induced alterations in RBC glycolytic flux, attenuated ATP export, and microvascular adhesion of transfused RBCs in vivo could contribute, but the underlying mechanisms have not been tested. We tested the novel hypothesis that improving deoxygenation-induced metabolic flux and the associated intracellular ATP generation in stored RBCs (sRBCs) results in an increased extracellular ATP export, and suppresses microvascular adhesion of RBCs to endothelium in vivo following transfusion. We show deficient intracellular ATP production and ATP export by human sRBCs during deoxygenation (impairments ~42 and 49%, respectively). sRBC pre-treatment with a solution containing glycolytic intermediate/purine/phosphate precursors (i.e. "PIPA") restored deoxygenation-induced intracellular ATP production, and promoted extracellular ATP export (improvement ~120 and 50%, respectively). In a nude mouse model of transfusion, adhesion of human RBCs to the microvasculature in vivo was examined. Only 2% of fresh RBCs (fRBCs) transfused adhered to the vascular wall, compared to 16% of sRBCs transfused. PIPA pre-treatment of sRBCs significantly reduced adhesion to just 5%. In hypoxia, adhesion of sRBCs transfused was significantly augmented (up to 21%), but not following transfusion of fRBCs or PIPA-treated sRBCs (3.5 or 6%). Enhancing the capacity for deoxygenation-induced glycolytic flux within sRBCs increases their ability to generate intracellular ATP, improves the inducible export of extracellular anti-adhesive ATP, and consequently suppresses adhesion of stored, transfused RBCs to the vascular wall in vivo.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 10/2014; DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00542.2014 · 4.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We set out to determine the effects of transfusing stored red blood cells (RBCs) on the levels of procoagulant microparticles (MPs) in the blood of trauma patients. Blood was drawn and processed to platelet poor plasma for MP analysis for 409 injured patients seen in the trauma bay from February 2011 to January 2013. Blood from 27 noninjured volunteers was also analyzed. Quantification of total procoagulant MP (per microliter plasma) using a direct plasma analysis via flow cytometry was performed. Demographic data, Injury Severity Score (ISS), overall mortality, and units of transfused packed RBCs were collected. Data are presented as median (interquartile range [IQR]). Transfusion groups were assessed using t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test as appropriate. The α level was set as 0.05 for statistical significance. Median ISS was 12 (IQR, 5-19), 12% were transfused, median age was 48 years (IQR, 29-62 years), 68% were male, and overall mortality was 3%. Median units transfused were 3 (IQR, 2-5). The median number of all procoagulant MP was greater in trauma patients (median 758; IQR, 405-1,627) when compared with our control subjects (median, 232; IQR, 125-372; p < 0.0001). This difference remained significant after adjusting for age and sex (p < 0.0001). In 39 patients who had MP levels measured before transfusion with RBC, the procoagulant MP levels did not change after transfusion (p = 0.07). Patients transfused with RBCs that were 14 days or older did not have increased procoagulant MP levels when compared with those that received RBCs that were younger than 14 days (p = 0.5).This was also true for those who received RBCs that were 28 days or older when compared with those that received RBCs that were younger than 28 days (p = 0.84). Procoagulant MP is significantly greater in trauma patients as compared with volunteers, even after adjusting for age and sex. We did not observe any change in the levels of procoagulant MPs after transfusion of stored RBCs. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 11/2014; 77(5):674-678. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000420 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Preoperative hematocrit (HCT) has predicted inferior outcome following cardiac surgery. However, the potential for preoperative HCT to be a marker for sicker patients was not well explored. This study examined the impact of HCT on outcome following nonemergent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and whether the association is modified by operative risk or intraoperative blood transfusion.Methods Nonemergent isolated CABG surgery patients were included (N = 2306). Logistic regressions were conducted to assess the effect of HCT on major perioperative morbidities. Separate analyses were conducted on tertiles of STS score (<0.55%, n = 768; 0.55% to 1.15%, n = 771; >1.15%, n = 767).ResultsMean age was 63.1 ± 10.1, preoperative HCT was 38.9 ± 4.8, and STS score was 1.4 ± 2.0% (median = 0.79%). In univariate (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001) and multivariate (OR = 0.93, p < 0.001) analyses, lower HCT predicted major morbidity. Lower HCT predicted major morbidity only in the highest risk tertile (OR = 0.93, p < 0.001) and the same result was found after multivariate adjustment (OR = 0.92, p < 0.001). Following inclusion of intraoperative transfusion in a multivariate model, preoperative HCT remained an independent predictor for major morbidity (OR = 0.95, p = 0.01), while transfusion was also a strong predictor (OR = 4.86, p < 0.001). Addition of transfusion to multivariate models by STS risk tertiles revealed preoperative HCT remained predictive only in the highest risk group (OR = 0.95, p = 0.03) while transfusion was a strong predictor in all three risk tertiles (OR = 3.97 to 10.36; p-values < 0.001).Conclusions Lower preoperative HCT was associated with higher odds for perioperative morbidity in nonemergent CABG patients with higher STS risk. Additionally, intraoperative blood transfusion negatively impacted all STS risk groups. Preoperative strategies to mitigate anemia may reduce transfusions and improve outcome in CABG patients.Journal of Cardiac Surgery 10/2014; 30(1). DOI:10.1111/jocs.12458 · 0.89 Impact Factor