Article

Social environment and depression among pregnant women in urban areas of Pakistan: importance of social relations.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
Social Science & Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.56). 10/2006; 63(6):1466-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.05.019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aspects of the social environment, including social conditions (socio-economic status, household situations, chronic illnesses) and social relations (attitude and behaviors of relations) are major determinants of depression among women. This study evaluates the relative power of social relations and social conditions in predicting depression among pregnant women in Pakistan. In the qualitative phase of the study, social environmental determinants were identified through literature search, and experts' opinions from psychologists, psychiatrists, gynecologists, sociologists and researchers. Along with this, 79 in-depth interviews were conducted with pregnant women drawn from six hospitals (public and private) and two communities in Karachi, Pakistan. Identified determinants of depression were grouped into themes of social conditions and social relations and pregnancy-related concerns. In the study's quantitative phase, the relative power of the identified themes and categories, based on their scores for predicting depression (determined by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D scale)), was determined through multivariate linear regression. Social environmental determinants of pregnant women were described under the themes and categories of (1) social relations: involving husband, in-laws and children; (2) social conditions: involving the economy, illness, life events, household work, environmental circumstances and social problems; and (3) pregnancy-related concerns i.e. symptoms of pregnancy, changes during pregnancy, dependency and concern for unborn baby. Multivariate analysis found that among these themes, social relations and pregnancy-related concerns were significantly associated with total CES-D scores. Among the categories besides increasing age and less education, husband, in-laws, household work and pregnancy symptoms were significantly associated with total CES-D scores. The study highlights the importance of social relations compared to social conditions for determining depression in pregnant women.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Unaiza Niaz, Dec 20, 2013
0 Followers
 · 
168 Views
  • Source
    [Show description] [Hide description]
    DESCRIPTION: Despite a plethora of empirical evidence on the work-family interface in 'the West‘, very little research has been carried out on the experiences of women in the context of Pakistan. What makes the Pakistani context unique is the interplay between gender, culture, religion, class and family structure. This affects reconciliation of work and family roles among working women. This thesis contributes to an understanding of the experiences of working women in a gendered, patriarchal, Muslim society. It offers an indigenous conceptualisation of the contours, causes, consequences and coping strategies (Four C‘s) of work-family conflict (WFC) among women working in Pakistani banks through a multi-layered, feminist, intersectional approach that gives voice to women.
  • Source
    [Show description] [Hide description]
    DESCRIPTION: Work-Family conflict among women working in banks in Pakistan is conceptualized as the interrole conflict between the role of ‘ideal worker’ and ‘good woman’. Keywords: Work-Family Conflict, Work-Life Balance, Pakistani women, working women, gender in Pakistan, intersectionality, feminist methodologies Citation: Faiz, R., Forson, C., Calveley, M., Grey, S. (2014) Ideal Worker versus Good Woman: Voices from Pakistan. Paper presented at 7th International Equality, Diversity and Inclusion Conference, Munich, Germany.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is generally viewed as a time of fulfillment and joy; however, for many women it can be a stressful event. In South Asia it is associated with cultural stigmas revolving around gender discrimination, abnormal births and genetic abnormalities. This cross-sectional study was done at four teaching hospitals in Lahore from February, 2014 to June, 2014. A total of 500 pregnant women seen at hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of three sections: demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS). Pearson's chi-squared test, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression were used to analyze associations between the independent variables and scores on the HADS and SPS. Mean age among the 500 respondents was 27.41 years (5.65). Anxiety levels in participants were categorized as normal (145 women, 29%), borderline (110, 22%) or anxious (245, 49%). Depression levels were categorized as normal (218 women, 43.6%), borderline (123, 24.6%) or depressed (159, 31.8%). Inferential analysis revealed that higher HADS scores were significantly associated with lower scores on the SPS, rural background, history of harassment, abortion, cesarean delivery and unplanned pregnancies (P < .05). Social support (SPS score) mediated the relationship between the total number of children, gender of previous children and HADS score. Women with more daughters were significantly more likely to score higher on the HADS and lower on the SPS, whereas higher numbers of sons were associated with the opposite trends in the scores (P < .05). Because of the predominantly patriarchal sociocultural context in Pakistan, the predictors of antenatal anxiety and depression may differ from those in developed countries. We therefore suggest that interventions designed and implemented to reduce antenatal anxiety and depression should take into account these unique factors.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0116510. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116510 · 3.53 Impact Factor