Urinary estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations in menstrual cycles of fertile women with non-conception, early pregnancy loss or clinical pregnancy

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Human Reproduction (Impact Factor: 4.59). 10/2006; 21(9):2272-80. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/del187
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Knowledge is limited of how estrogen and progesterone variability in fertile women are associated with achieving pregnancy.
From 1996 to 1998, we enrolled 347 textile workers without hormone treatment in Anhui, China, who provided daily urine and data upon stopping contraception for up to 1 year until clinical pregnancy. Urinary hCG was assayed to detect conception and early pregnancy losses. We compared urinary concentrations of estrone conjugates (E(1)C) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) in 266 clinical pregnancies, 63 early pregnancy losses and 272 non-conception cycles from 347 women and also in 94 clinical pregnancy and 94 non-conception cycles from the same women.
Using generalized estimating equations and relative to 266 clinical pregnancy cycles, log(E(1)C) was lower in 272 non-conception cycles [beta = -0.3 ng/mg creatinine (Cr); SE = 0.1; P < 0.0001]. On average, daily E(1)C was 18 ng/mg Cr lower in non-conception cycles than in clinical pregnancy cycles. Relative to 94 clinical pregnancy cycles, log(E(1)C) was lower in 94 non-conception cycles (beta = -0.4 ng/mg Cr; SE = 0.1; P < 0.0001) from the same women (average difference in daily E(1)C was 20 ng/mg Cr). The odds of E(1)C less than the 10th percentile (<30 ng/mg Cr) were higher in early pregnancy loss cycles [odds ratio (OR) = 4.8; P = 0.0027] than in clinical pregnancy cycles in the early luteal phase. Compared with clinical pregnancy cycles, log(PdG) concentrations were lower in non-conception cycles during the follicular phase, but this analysis lacked power for multiple testing.
Estrogen concentrations varied from cycle to cycle, and higher estrogen was associated with achieving clinical pregnancy.


Available from: Xiaobin Wang, Oct 03, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There has long been much interest in whether psychological stress may have inhibitory effects on ovarian hormone production and associated fecundity in women, but previous research has been inconclusive. The present study assessed whether hormone concentrations were lower on days with higher self-perceived stress than on days with lower stress within the same menstrual cycles. Results demonstrated a clear negative relationship between current day stress ratings and salivary estradiol concentrations (but not concentrations of testosterone or progesterone). This effect survived controls for potential confounding variables related to food intake, cold symptoms, exercise duration, and hours of sleep. Likewise, the effect was still present when controlling for day of the menstrual cycle, and elevated stress was associated with suppressed estradiol across broad regions of the cycle. These findings provide direct evidence for an inhibitory effect of psychological stress on ovarian hormone production, and thus recommend future research designed to further elucidate the relevant physiological mechanisms.
    03/2014; 1(1). DOI:10.1007/s40750-014-0004-2
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although preconception 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) exposure and B-vitamin deficiencies have each been shown to negatively affect human reproductive outcomes, little is known about their joint effect. We sought to examine whether B-vitamin sufficiency protects against adverse effects of DDT on clinical pregnancy (CP) and subclinical early pregnancy loss (EPL). We measured preconception concentrations of plasma B vitamins (vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and folate) and serum total DDT [sum of p,p' and o,p' isomers of DDT and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] in 291 nulligravid women from Anhui, China, who were studied in 1996-1998. The women were followed prospectively from the time they stopped contraception until CP (gestational age ≥42 d) or 12 mo (whichever occurred first). EPL was identified by using daily urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. The women were categorized according to B-vitamin status (deficiency compared with sufficiency) and DDT concentration (high compared with low). Of 291 study women, a total of 385 conceptions (31% of which ended in EPL) and 265 CPs occurred. Compared with women with adequate B-vitamins and low DDT, incidence rates of CP were reduced in women with B-vitamin deficiency and a high DDT concentration (P < 0.05 for all). Most notably, in women with sufficient vitamin B-12, DDT was not associated with the incidence of CP; in contrast, in women with vitamin B-12 deficiency, high DDT was associated with a lower incidence of CP (HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.84); and the test for interaction was significant (P < 0.05). The odds of EPL decreased by 45% (95% CI: 21%, 62%) for each interquartile distance increase in folate in women with high DDT concentrations, and the test for interaction was significant (P = 0.006). Our results provide suggestive evidence that vitamin B-12 and folate sufficiency may help protect against adverse reproductive effects of DDT exposure. Additional studies are needed to confirm our findings. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2014; 100(6):1470-8. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.088377 · 6.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research finds that ovulation—the time each month when women are most fertile—can shift women’s mating psychology and increase their desire for new options in men. However, might ovulation also increase women’s desire for new products? Four studies find that women select a greater number of unique options from consumer product sets at high fertility. This effect is especially strong for women in committed relationships. Additional findings show that the fertility shift in desire for variety in products is driven by the fertility shift in desire for new options in men activating a variety-seeking mind-set. Subsequently, loyalty to a romantic partner, whether manipulated or measured, moderated the effect of fertility on consumer variety seeking. This research contributes to the literature by revealing when, why, and how fertility influences desire for variety in consumer choice and highlights the mating motives that underlie this effect.
    Journal of Consumer Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1086/679652 · 3.10 Impact Factor