Perioperative glucose control in the diabetic or nondiabetic patient

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Southern Medical Journal (Impact Factor: 1.12). 07/2006; 99(6):580-9; quiz 590-1. DOI: 10.1097/01.smj.0000209366.91803.99
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Patients with diabetes are more likely to undergo surgery than nondiabetics, and maintaining glycemic control in subjects with diabetes can be challenging during the perioperative period. Surgery in diabetic patients is associated with longer hospital stay, higher health care resource utilization, and greater perioperative mortality. In addition, several observational and interventional studies have indicated that hyperglycemia is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in surgical and critically ill patients. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia during trauma and surgical stress and will provide practical recommendations for the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care of diabetic patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with poor outcome after surgery. The prevalence of DM in hospitalised patients is up to 40%, meaning that the anaesthesiologist will encounter a patient with DM in the operating room on a daily basis. Despite an abundance of published glucose lowering protocols and the known negative outcomes associated with perioperative hyperglycaemia in DM, there is no evidence regarding the optimal intraoperative glucose lowering treatment. In addition, protocol adherence is usually low and protocol targets are not simply met. Recently, incretins have been introduced to lower blood glucose. The main hormone of the incretin system is glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 increases insulin and decreases glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, resulting in glucose lowering action with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia. We set out to determine the optimal intraoperative treatment algorithm to lower glucose in patients with DM type 2 undergoing non-cardiac surgery, comparing intraoperative glucose-insulin-potassium infusion (GIK), insulin bolus regimen (BR) and GPL-1 (liragludite, LG) treatment. This is a multicentre randomised open label trial in patients with DM type 2 undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Patients are randomly assigned to one of three study arms; intraoperative glucose-insulin-potassium infusion (GIK), intraoperative sliding-scale insulin boluses (BR) or GPL-1 pre-treatment with liraglutide (LG). Capillary glucose will be measured every hour. If necessary, in all study arms glucose will be adjusted with an intravenous bolus of insulin. Researchers, care givers and patients will not be blinded for the assigned treatment. The main outcome measure is the difference in median glucose between the three study arms at 1 hour postoperatively. We will include 315 patients, which gives us a 90% power to detect a 1 mmol l(-1) difference in glucose between the study arms. The PILGRIM trial started in January 2014 and will provide relevant information on the perioperative use of GLP-1 agonists and the optimal intraoperative treatment algorithm in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2., NCT02036372.
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