This study explored the relationship between smoking and significant pain. It was hypothesized that readiness to quit smoking would be negatively affected by pain issues. A cross-sectional design was used in this phone-based survey with randomly selected adult smokers. A total of 307 adult participants in the control group from a larger Quit and Win Study participated in the interview. Participants were contacted at home and completed a 20-min phone survey including measures of pain, stress, depressive symptoms, social support, tobacco use status, and readiness to quit smoking. A total of 28% reported significant pain in the past week. Participants who experienced significant pain smoked more cigarettes per day than those who did not report significant pain. However, pain was not associated with readiness to quit. More than half (58%) of those with significant pain were in the contemplation stage of change or higher. The fact that smokers with pain were just as likely as those without significant pain to be ready to quit demands that each individual patient with pain be assessed for readiness to quit so that a tailored approach can be adopted either to motivate the patient to quit or to assist the patient with evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment strategies if he or she wants such treatment. Placing formal tobacco dependence treatment programs within pain clinics and addressing pain in smoking cessation programs is recommended.
"The recently updated U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence indicate that integrating tobacco dependence interventions into chronic disease management programs may be an effective and efficient way to deliver tobacco use interventions to smokers with comorbid medical conditions (Fiore, et al., 2008). Hahn et al. (2006) made several recommendations regarding the integration of treatments for smoking cessation and chronic pain, including: (a) that tobacco dependence treatment protocols incorporate assessment of pain and contingent referrals for pain management; (b) that pain clinics introduce formal tobacco dependence treatment programs; and (c) that smoking cessation and pain management professionals increasingly seek out and engage collaborative efforts to meet the unique needs of smokers in pain. Clearly, additional research is needed to effectively inform the development and integration of treatments for pain and smoking. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, we extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these 2 conditions. The extant literature was 1st dichotomized into investigations of either effects of smoking on pain or effects of pain on smoking. We then integrated these findings to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain and increased smoking. Finally, we proposed directions for future research and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions and that pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quit and Win contests were developed in the 1980s by the Minnesota Heart Health Program, and have been widely used since then as a population-based smoking cessation intervention at local, national and international level. Since 1994 an international contest has been held every two years in as many as 80 countries (2002).
To determine whether quit and win contests can deliver higher long-term quit rates than baseline community quit rates.To assess the impact of such programmes, we considered both the quit rates achieved by participants, and the population impact, which takes into account the proportion of the target population entering the contest.
We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. Search terms included competition*, quit and win, quit to win, contest*, prize*. Most recent search date was November 2007.
We considered randomized controlled trials, allocating individuals or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures.
Data were extracted by one author and checked by the second. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking for at least six months from the start of the intervention. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. We decided against performing a meta-analysis, because of the heterogeneity of the included studies, and the small number of scientifically valid studies.
Five studies met our inclusion criteria. Three demonstrated significantly higher quit rates (8% to 20%) for the quit and win group than for the control group at the 12-month assessment. However, the population impact measure, where available, suggests that the effect of contests on community prevalence of smoking is small, with fewer than one in 500 smokers quitting because of the contest. Levels of deception, where they could be quantified, were high. Although surveys suggest that international quit and win contests may be effective, especially in developing countries, the lack of controlled studies precludes any firm conclusions from this review.
Quit and win contests at local and regional level appear to deliver quit rates above baseline community rates, although the population impact of the contests seems to be relatively low. Contests may be subject to levels of deception which could compromise the validity of the intervention. International contests may prove to be an effective mechanism, particularly in developing countries, but a lack of well-designed comparative studies precludes any firm conclusions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoking has been associated with the development and exacerbation of chronically painful conditions. Conversely, there is reason to believe that smokers may be motivated to use tobacco as a means of coping with their pain. To date, no controlled, experimental studies have tested for a causal relationship between pain and smoking motivation. The primary aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that laboratory-induced cold pressor pain would enhance smoking motivation, as measured by self-reported urge to smoke and observation of immediate smoking behavior. Smokers (N=132) were randomly assigned to either pain or no pain conditions. Results indicated that situational pain increased urge ratings and produced shorter latencies to smoke. The relationship between pain and increased urge to smoke was partially mediated by pain-induced negative affect. The relationship between pain and shorter latency to smoke was fully mediated by pain-induced urge to smoke. This study provides the 1st experimental evidence that situational pain can be a potent motivator of smoking.
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