Brain and leptomeningeal metastases from breast cancer carry a poor prognosis and are often less responsive to systemic therapy. It is often thought that systemic therapy has a minimal role in the management of central nervous system (CNS) metastases because of the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier. However, treatments directed to the CNS such as radiation or intrathecal chemotherapy are not effective in managing concurrent non-CNS metastases. We report the long-term control of a woman receiving capecitabine with brain and leptomeningeal metastases. After 3.7 years of capecitabine therapy after whole-brain radiation, the patient remains without neurologic symptoms or deficits, has no evidence of disease on neuroimaging studies, but has a persistent positive cytology. This case report demonstrates that, in principle, systemic therapy can provide long-term complete responses for some patients with CNS metastases. The significance of persistent circulating tumor cells in the CNS in patients without evidence of disease is unclear but should be investigated further.
"However, tumor neovascularization can disrupt the BBB and allow increased penetration of systemic chemotherapy to the entire neuraxis. Furthermore, systemic chemotherapy has demonstrated the potential to treat all areas of disease in patients with LC who generally have widespread incurable systemic disease . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This case study reports on a 56-year-old woman with breast adenocarcinoma and leptomeningeal metastases. After initial chemotherapy with a dose-dense regimen of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel (100 mg/m(2)), a lumpectomy was performed that revealed invasive ductal carcinoma with lymph node involvement. Because of the extent of the disease, she underwent a mastectomy. Two months after the completion of initial chemotherapy, leptomeningeal metastases were detected on December 13, 2006. After completion of whole-brain radiation therapy, she received systemic chemotherapy with a novel albumin-bound 130-nm formulation of paclitaxel (nab®-paclitaxel) at 100 mg/m(2) combined with carboplatin AUC = 6, both given weekly. Clinical response was prompt, with a reduction in the circulating tumor cell (CTC) count from 63 before treatment to 2 after the first treatment cycle. While undergoing treatment with nab-paclitaxel plus carboplatin, she reported an improvement in neurologic symptoms, including a decrease in headaches, improved cognition and balance, and an overall improved quality of life. Before the third treatment cycle, she had a CTC count of 2. Without treatment, the median survival of patients diagnosed with leptomeningeal metastases is 4-6 weeks. However, this patient survived for 4 months after the diagnosis of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Treatment was discontinued because of complications of urosepsis, and the patient died on April 7, 2007. Our case shows that additional treatment with weekly nab-paclitaxel combined with carboplatin (AUC6) can prolong life for some patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from breast cancer.
Case Reports in Oncology 01/2012; 5(1):56-61. DOI:10.1159/000336247
"This may be caused by the activity of capecitabine in treating CNS metastases, previously described casuistically . Additionally, earlier tests indicated certain effectiveness of capecitabine in treating brain metastases [19, 20]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with breast cancer with overexpression of the HER2 receptor, during treatment with trastuzumab, in 30% of cases brain metastases are observed. The use of lapatinib with capecitabine (L + C) seems to be an efficacious method of curing patients in whom the spread of cancer in this location has occurred. In a patient aged 52 treated by the L + C scheme a stabilization of changes in the brain was noted, lingering for 17 months. The tolerance of the treatment was good. Grade 2 hand-foot syndrome on the NCI 2,0 scale, nausea, a first degree increase in transaminase levels and first degree diarrhea were observed. No hematological or cardiac complications were observed.
In the third phase test comparing capecitabine with capecitabine and lapatinib in patients with advanced breast cancer, adding lapatinib to capecitabine significantly prolonged the time until progression and contributed to lessening of the amount of progression of the condition into the central nervous system. Recently published studies showed 6% remission of metastases to the central nervous system in patients with advanced breast cancer with brain metastases treated with lapatinib and 20–21% in patients receiving lapatinib with capecitabine. Future studies evaluating the effectiveness of lapatinib in patients with spread into the central nervous system should include the evaluation of lapatinib in association with cytostatics able to break through the blood-brain barrier. Lapatinib should also be tested in association with brain radiation, considering the results of preclinical studies indicating that it may work as a radiation sensitizer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preclinical data have demonstrated that ionizing radiation acts synergistically with capecitabine. This report retrospectively
assessed the use of capecitabine concurrently with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases from
breast cancer. From January 2003 to March 2005, five breast cancer patients with brain metastases were referred for WBRT with
concurrent capecitabine. Median age was 44years (range: 38–53). The median dose of capecitabine was 1,000mg/m2 twice daily for 14days (day1–14). Treatment cycles were repeated every 21days, concurrently with WBRT (30Gy, 3Gy per
fraction, 5days per week). Median survival after starting WBRT plus capecitabine was 6.5months (range 1–34months). One
patient achieved a complete response. Two patients achieved partial response, including one with local control lasting until
most recent follow-up. One patient had stable disease. The remaining patient was not assessable for response because of early
death. Most commonly reported adverse events were nausea (n=2) and headache (n=2), always grade 1. Other toxicities were grade 3 hand/foot syndrome (n=1), moderate anemia requiring transfusion and dose reduction of capecitabine (n=1), and grade 1 mucositis (n=1). Although promising, these preliminary data warrant further assessment of capecitabine-based chemoradiation in brain
metastases from breast cancer and need to be further validated in the setting of a clinical trial.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 07/2009; 93(3):379-384. DOI:10.1007/s11060-008-9791-2 · 3.07 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.