Article

Severe hot flashes are associated with chronic insomnia

Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3430 W. Bayshore Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA.
Archives of Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 13.25). 07/2006; 166(12):1262-8. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.166.12.1262
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Because hot flashes can occur during the night, their presence has been frequently associated with insomnia in women with symptoms of menopause. However, many factors other than hot flashes or menopause can be responsible for insomnia, and several factors associated with insomnia in the general population are also commonly observed in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women who have hot flashes.
A random sample of 3243 subjects (aged > or =18 years) representative of the California population was interviewed by telephone. Included were 982 women aged 35 to 65 years. Women were divided into 3 groups according to menopausal status: premenopause (57.2%), perimenopause (22.3%), and postmenopause (20.5%). Hot flashes were counted if they were present for at least 3 days per week during the last month and were classified as mild, moderate, or severe according to their effect on daily functioning. Chronic insomnia was defined as global sleep dissatisfaction, difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, or nonrestorative sleep, for at least 6 months. Diagnoses of insomnia were assessed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, classification.
Prevalence of hot flashes was 12.5% in premenopause, 79.0% in perimenopause, and 39.3% in postmenopause. Prevalence of chronic insomnia was reported as 36.5% in premenopause, 56.6% in perimenopause, and 50.7% in postmenopause (P<.001). Prevalence of symptoms of chronic insomnia increased with the severity of hot flashes, reaching more than 80% in perimenopausal women and postmenopausal women who had severe hot flashes. In multivariate analyses, severe hot flashes were significantly associated with symptoms and a diagnosis of chronic insomnia. Poor health, chronic pain, and sleep apnea were other significant factors associated with chronic insomnia.
Severe hot flashes are strongly associated with chronic insomnia in midlife women. The presence of hot flashes should be systematically investigated in women with insomnia. Treating hot flashes could improve sleep quality and minimize the deleterious consequences of chronic insomnia.

0 Followers
 · 
78 Views
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: The changing hormonal milieu around menopause is implicated in the development of sleep disturbances. No studies have assessed the association between concurrent physiological measures of sleep and serum hormone concentrations in perimenopausal women. Objective: To assess the interaction between physiological sleep and reproductive hormone measures in perimenopausal women. Design and Participants: Cross-sectional laboratory study of 33 perimenopausal women aged 43-52 y (17 with no sleep complaints, 16 with a clinical diagnosis of insomnia). Eleven premenopausal women without sleep complaints (18-27 y), were included to determine whether hormone-sleep relationships differed depending on reproductive stage. Main Outcome Measures: Polysomnographic sleep indices and serum hormones (estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)). Results: FSH was positively associated with polysomnographic-defined wakefulness after sleep onset, and number of awakenings and arousals in perimenopausal women (p<0.05) without sleep complaints independent of age, body mass index and hot flashes. Similarly, FSH correlated with wakefulness after sleep onset and light N1 sleep in premenopausal women (p<0.05). In contrast, in perimenopausal insomniacs, amount of sleep correlated with anxiety and depression (p<0.05) but not with FSH. Estradiol did not correlate with sleep in perimenopausal groups but correlated negatively with arousals in premenopausal women (p<0.01). Conclusion: Our results indicate an interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and sleep-wake regulatory systems in pre- and peri-menopausal women without sleep complaints. There was no relationship between hormones and sleep in perimenopausal insomniacs, whose sleep may be influenced by other factors intrinsic to insomnia, such as hyperactivity, poor mood, and night-to-night variability.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 02/2015; DOI:10.1210/jc.2014-3892 · 6.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding sleep complaints among menopausal women is an emerging area of clinical and research interest. Several recent reviews have focused on mechanisms of menopausal insomnia and symptoms. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on the treatment of sleep disorders for menopausal women, with a focus on menopause-related insomnia, insomnia symptoms, and obstructive sleep apnea. We discuss both nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), complementary and alternative medicine, hormone replacement therapy, sedative hypnotics, antidepressants, and continuous positive airway pressure. In addition, we briefly discuss methods and considerations of assessment of sleep disorders in menopausal women.
    Current Psychiatry Reviews 02/2015; 11(1):63-83. DOI:10.2174/1573400510666140929194848