Two novel activating mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein result in congenital neutropenia.

Department of Haematology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, WC1N 3JH, United Kingdom.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 11/2006; 108(7):2182-9. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2006-01-010249
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is characterized by neutropenia, recurrent bacterial infections, and maturation arrest in the bone marrow. Although many cases have mutations in the ELA2 gene encoding neutrophil elastase, a significant proportion remain undefined at a molecular level. A mutation (Leu270Pro) in the gene encoding the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) resulting in an X-linked SCN kindred has been reported. We therefore screened the WAS gene in 14 young SCN males with wild-type ELA2 and identified 2 with novel mutations, one who presented with myelodysplasia (Ile294Thr) and the other with classic SCN (Ser270Pro). Both patients had defects of immunologic function including a generalized reduction of lymphoid and natural killer cell numbers, reduced lymphocyte proliferation, and abrogated phagocyte activity. In vitro culture of bone marrow progenitors demonstrated a profound reduction in neutrophil production and increased levels of apoptosis, consistent with an intrinsic disturbance of normal myeloid differentiation as the cause of the neutropenia. Both mutations resulted in increased WASp activity and produced marked abnormalities of cytoskeletal structure and dynamics. Furthermore, these results also suggest a novel cause of myelodysplasia and that male children with myelodysplasia and disturbance of immunologic function should be screened for such mutations.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Mutation in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome Protein (WASP) causes Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) and X-linked congenital neutropenia (XLN). The majority of missense mutations causing WAS and XLT are found in the WH1 (WASP Homology) domain of WASP, known to mediate interaction with WIP (WASP Interacting Protein) and CIB1 (Calcium and Integrin Binding).ResultsWe analyzed two WASP missense mutants (L46P and A47D) causing XLT for their effects on T cell chemotaxis. Both mutants, WASPR L46P and WASPR A47D (S1-WASP shRNA resistant) expressed well in JurkatWASP-KD T cells (WASP knockdown), however expression of these two mutants did not rescue the chemotaxis defect of JurkatWASP-KD T cells towards SDF-1¿. In addition JurkatWASP-KD T cells expressing these two WASP mutants were found to be defective in T cell polarization when stimulated with SDF-1¿. WASP exists in a closed conformation in the presence of WIP, however both the mutants (WASPR L46P and WASPR A47D) were found to be in an open conformation as determined in the bi-molecular complementation assay. WASP protein undergoes proteolysis upon phosphorylation and this turnover of WASP is critical for T cell migration. Both the WASP mutants were found to be stable and have reduced tyrosine phosphorylation after stimulation with SDF-1¿.Conclusion Thus our data suggest that missense mutations WASPR L46P or WASPR A47D affect the activity of WASP in T cell chemotaxis probably by affecting the turnover of the protein.
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    ABSTRACT: All the human primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) recognized as such in the 1950s were Mendelian traits and, whether autosomal or X-linked, displayed recessive inheritance. The first autosomal dominant (AD) PID, hereditary angioedema, was recognized in 1963. However, since the first identification of autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked recessive (XR) and AD PID-causing genes in 1985 (ADA; severe combined immunodeficiency), 1986 (CYBB, chronic granulomatous disease) and 1989 (SERPING1; hereditary angioedema), respectively, the number of genetically defined AD PIDs has increased more rapidly than that of any other type of PID. AD PIDs now account for 61 of the 260 known conditions (23%). All known AR PIDs are caused by alleles with some loss-of-function (LOF). A single XR PID is caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations (WASP-related neutropenia, 2001). In contrast, only 44 of 61 AD defects are caused by LOF alleles, which exert dominance by haploinsufficiency or negative dominance. Since 2003, up to 17 AD disorders of the third kind, due to GOF alleles, have been described. Remarkably, six of the 17 genes concerned also harbor monoallelic (STAT3), biallelic (C3, CFB, CARD11, PIK3R1) or both monoallelic and biallelic (STAT1) LOF alleles in patients with other clinical phenotypes. Most heterozygous GOF alleles result in auto-inflammation, auto-immunity, or both, with a wide range of immunological and clinical forms. Some also underlie infections and, fewer, allergies, by impairing or enhancing immunity to non-self. Malignancies are also rare. The enormous diversity of immunological and clinical phenotypes is thought provoking and mirrors the diversity and pleiotropy of the underlying genotypes. These experiments of nature provide a unique insight into the quantitative regulation of human immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophil granulocytes are key effector cells of the vertebrate immune system. They represent 50-70% of the leukocytes in the human blood and their loss by disease or drug side effect causes devastating bacterial infections. Their high turnover rate, their fine-tuned killing machinery, and their arsenal of toxic vesicles leave them particularly vulnerable to various genetic deficiencies. The aim of this review is to highlight those congenital immunodeficiencies which impede the dynamics of neutrophils, such as migration, cytoskeletal rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, and secretion.
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