[Airway management in pediatric anesthesia].
ABSTRACT Airway management in newborns, infants, and children is a challenge to anesthesia practitioners due to the particular anatomic and physiological characteristics. The larynx is positioned more cephalad, the occiput is protuberant, and the neck is short, which makes a special position for anesthesia induction necessary. The high respiratory frequency due to high oxygen demand and carbon dioxide production has to be taken into consideration during manual as well as mechanical ventilation. Different devices are available for airway management. Simple mask ventilation can be improved by a Wendl tube. The classic laryngeal mask can be recommended as a safe airway device in many indications, specifically in children with an upper respiratory airway infection. If intubation is indicated, an optimal size and position of the endotracheal tube has to be provided. Fiberoptic endotracheal intubation is recommended if a difficult airway is known or anticipated due to a craniofacial syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was used in 34 children who presented with difficult airways and difficulty in intubation. All 34 children were a grade 3 or grade 4 Cormack and Leehane view at conventional laryngoscopy. The laryngeal mask airway was used as part of the anaesthetic technique. It was either used as the method of airway maintenance during a short procedure or as an aid to fibreoptic intubation. The results of its use in this group of patients showed that overall a good airway was obtained in 73% of patients and an adequate airway in 27%, and in no patient was a poor airway obtained. The fibreoptic positioning of the LMA, taken from the distal aperture of the laryngeal mask airway showed that, overall, in 29.5% of patients a full view of the glottis (grade 1) was obtained, in 29.5% of patients a partial view of the glottis (grade 2) was obtained and in 41% a view of the epiglottis only (grade 3) was obtained. In no patient was a view excluding the epiglottis obtained. In children with a mucopolysaccharide disorder, the number of children who had a grade 3 view increased to 54%. Children with a disorder other than mucopolysaccharidosis had a grade 3 view in only 17% of cases. Children with mucopolysaccharidoses had a grade 1 view in only 14% of cases compared with 58% in the group with other disorders. Of the 34 patients, 21 patients were intubated on 31 separate occasions. There were no failures. The complications of the fibreoptic intubation technique described are outlined.Pediatric Anesthesia 02/2000; 10(1):53-8. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Broselow tape was designed to estimate body weight and tracheal tube size on the basis of the body length of emergency paediatric patients. The tape was validated previously in US populations. We assessed its accuracy in a sample of European children by reviewing paediatric anaesthetic charts at the Triemli City Hospital for 1999. Age, body length and body weight measured before surgery as well as the size of the tracheal tube used were recorded. The body weight was estimated on the basis of body length using the Broselow tape and was compared with the measured weight. Tracheal tube size selections using the Broselow tape and an age-based formula were compared with the size of the tube used. A good correlation was found between the Broselow weight and the measured weight (r2=0.88). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean bias of -0.52 kg for the entire study population. For children < or = 20 kg the mean bias was -0.05 kg, and for children > 20 kg was -1.05 kg. The Broselow weight was found to be within a 10% error of the measured weight in 65% of children. Tracheal tube selection by the Broselow tape method was adequate in 55% but underestimated the actual tube size in 39%. The age-based formula matched the actual tracheal tube size in 41% of children but overestimated it in 57%. The Broselow tape is an accurate means to assess body weight from length in smaller children; in older children it underestimated body weight. Endotracheal tube size selection by the Broselow tape appears to match the size of the tube used better than the age-based formula. The results in a European sample of children are comparable to the US data.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 02/2002; 88(2):283-5. · 4.24 Impact Factor
- Anesthesiology 08/1951; 12(4):401-10. · 5.16 Impact Factor