Airway management in pediatric anesthesia

Kliniken für Anästhesiologie und operative Intensivmedizin, Charitè-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin.
Der Anaesthesist (Impact Factor: 0.76). 08/2006; 55(7):809-19; quiz 820.
Source: PubMed


Airway management in newborns, infants, and children is a challenge to anesthesia practitioners due to the particular anatomic and physiological characteristics. The larynx is positioned more cephalad, the occiput is protuberant, and the neck is short, which makes a special position for anesthesia induction necessary. The high respiratory frequency due to high oxygen demand and carbon dioxide production has to be taken into consideration during manual as well as mechanical ventilation. Different devices are available for airway management. Simple mask ventilation can be improved by a Wendl tube. The classic laryngeal mask can be recommended as a safe airway device in many indications, specifically in children with an upper respiratory airway infection. If intubation is indicated, an optimal size and position of the endotracheal tube has to be provided. Fiberoptic endotracheal intubation is recommended if a difficult airway is known or anticipated due to a craniofacial syndrome.

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