Dietary patterns in the Southampton Women's Survey

MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.71). 01/2007; 60(12):1391-9. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602469
Source: PubMed


Dietary pattern analysis is receiving increasing attention as a means of summarizing the multidimensional nature of dietary data. This research aims to compare principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis using dietary data collected from young women in the UK.
Diet was assessed using a 100-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. PCA and cluster analysis were used to examine dietary patterns.
Southampton, UK.
A total of 6125 non-pregnant women aged 20-34 years.
PCA identified two important patterns: a 'prudent' diet and a 'high-energy' diet. Cluster analysis defined two clusters, a 'more healthy' and a 'less healthy' cluster. There was a strong association between the prudent diet score and the two clusters, such that the mean prudent diet score in the less healthy cluster was -0.73 standard deviations and in the more healthy cluster was +0.83 standard deviations; the difference in the high-energy diet score between the two clusters was considerably smaller.
Both approaches revealed a similar dietary pattern. The continuous nature of the outcome of PCA was considered to be advantageous compared with the dichotomy identified using cluster analysis.
The study was funded by the Dunhill Medical Trust, the University of Southampton and the Medical Research Council.

Download full-text


Available from: Sian M Robinson, Oct 13, 2015
28 Reads
  • Source
    • "International studies have also shown some consistency with these findings. Crozier et al, identified two main patterns in their UK study involving 6125 non-pregnant women aged 20–34 years [43]; ‘Prudent’ and ‘High-energy’. The patterns identified in the present study, ‘Fruits’ and ‘Potatoes and vegetables’ have similar characteristics to the ‘Prudent’ pattern. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention, incorporating a parent modelling component, on fathers' obesity risk-related behaviours. Cluster randomized-controlled trial in the setting of pre-existing first-time parents groups organised by Maternal and Child Health Nurses in Victoria, Australia. Participants were 460 first-time fathers mean age = 34.2 (s.d.4.90) years. Dietary pattern scores of fathers were derived using principal component analysis, total physical activity and total television viewing time were assessed at baseline (infant aged three to four months) and after 15 months. No significant beneficial intervention effect was observed on fathers' dietary pattern scores, total physical activity or total television viewing time. Despite a strong focus on parent modelling (targeting parents own diet, physical activity and television viewing behaviours), and beneficial impact on mothers' obesity risk behaviours, this intervention, with mothers as the point of contact, had no effect on fathers' obesity risk-related behaviours. Based on the established links between children's obesity risk-related behaviors and that of their fathers, a need exists for research testing the effectiveness of interventions with a stronger engagement of fathers.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 02/2014; 11(1):18. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-11-18 · 4.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "A and the number of com - ponents retained ( Newby & Tucker 2004 ; Crozier et al . 2006 ) . This makes it difficult to compare diet pattern studies directly . However , in other diet pat - terns analyses of European data , where similar numbers of input variables have been used a compa - rable proportion of variance was explained by two patterns ( Crozier et al . 2006 ; Robinson et al . 2007 ; Fisk et al . 2011 ) . Although FFQs may be subject to meas - urement error , patterns defined using FFQ data have been shown to be comparable to patterns defined using other assessment methods , and pattern scores from different methods are highly correlated ( Hu 2002 ) . Furthermore , a number of studies have "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 07/2013; 10(1). DOI:10.1111/mcn.12046 · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In the present study, however, both ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diets are covered by the first principal component, represented by high and low scores, respectively. This dual dimension within the first component was also seen in a large cohort of pregnant women in Southampton [30,31]. The first principal component extracted in that study was characterized by high intakes of healthy food items vs. unhealthy food items. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Little is known about the consumption of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics associated with frequent consumption of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods The present study includes 63 808 women who during the years 2002–2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational weeks 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. The exploration of food patterns by Principal component analyses (PCA) was followed by ANOVA analyses investigating how these food patterns as well as intake of selected food groups were associated with consumption of organic food. Results The first principal component (PC1) identified by PCA, accounting for 12% of the variation, was interpreted as a ‘health and sustainability component’, with high positive loadings for vegetables, fruit and berries, cooking oil, whole grain bread and cereal products and negative loadings for meat, including processed meat, white bread, and cakes and sweets. Frequent consumption of organic food, which was reported among 9.1% of participants (n = 5786), was associated with increased scores on the ‘health and sustainability component’ (p < 0.001). The increase in score represented approximately 1/10 of the total variation and was independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Participants with frequent consumption of organic food had a diet with higher density of fiber and most nutrients such as folate, beta-carotene and vitamin C, and lower density of sodium compared to participants with no or low organic consumption. Conclusion The present study showed that pregnant Norwegian women reporting frequent consumption of organically produced food had dietary pattern and quality more in line with public advice for healthy and sustainable diets. A methodological implication is that the overall diet needs to be included in future studies of potential health outcomes related to consumption of organic food during pregnancy.
    BMC Public Health 08/2012; 12(1):612. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-612 · 2.26 Impact Factor
Show more