Article

Acute stress reduces reward responsiveness: implications for depression

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.25). 12/2006; 60(10):1147-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.03.037
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Stress, one of the strongest risk factors for depression, has been linked to "anhedonic" behavior and dysfunctional reward-related neural circuitry in preclinical models.
To test if acute stress reduces reward responsiveness (i.e., the ability to modulate behavior as a function of past reward), a signal-detection task coupled with a differential reinforcement schedule was utilized. Eighty female participants completed the task under both a stress condition, either threat-of-shock (n = 38) or negative performance feedback (n = 42), and a no-stress condition.
Stress increased negative affect and anxiety. As hypothesized based on preclinical findings, stress, particularly the threat-of-shock condition, impaired reward responsiveness. Regression analyses indicate that self-report measures of anhedonia predicted stress-induced hedonic deficits even after controlling for anxiety symptoms.
These findings indicate that acute stress reduces reward responsiveness, particularly in individuals with anhedonic symptoms. Stress-induced hedonic deficit is a promising candidate mechanism linking stressful experiences to depression.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Ryan Bogdan, Jul 19, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
90 Views
  • Source
    • "Privileging escape/avoidance as a behavioral strategy can result in diminished reward sensitivity (Bogdan & Pizzagalli, 2006) and inferior discrimination of cues signaling rewards of differing value (Forbes, Shaw, & Dahl, 2007). Individuals with distress disorders also exhibit deficits in threat and safety learning. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:
    Psychological Inquiry 03/2015; 26(1):80-92. DOI:10.1080/1047840X.2015.969624 · 6.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Each participant was exposed to the same reward ratio. Reward learning was defined as the difference in response bias between Block 1 and Block 3 (Pizzagalli et al., 2005; Bogdan and Pizzagalli, 2006; Pizzagalli et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: A relationship between bulimia nervosa (BN) and reward-related behavior is supported by several lines of evidence. The dopaminergic dysfunctions in the processing of reward-related stimuli have been shown to be modulated by the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hormone leptin. Methods: Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, a reward learning task was applied to study the behavior of 20 female subjects with remitted BN (rBN) and 27 female healthy controls under placebo and catecholamine depletion with alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT). The plasma levels of BDNF and leptin were measured twice during the placebo and the AMPT condition, immediately before and 1 h after a standardized breakfast. Results: AMPT-induced differences in plasma BDNF levels were positively correlated with the AMPT-induced differences in reward learning in the whole sample (p = 0.05). Across conditions, plasma BDNF levels were higher in rBN subjects compared to controls (diagnosis effect; p = 0.001). Plasma BDNF and leptin levels were higher in the morning before compared to after a standardized breakfast across groups and conditions (time effect; p < 0.0001). The plasma leptin levels were higher under catecholamine depletion compared to placebo in the whole sample (treatment effect; p = 0.0004). Conclusions: This study reports on preliminary findings that suggest a catecholamine-dependent association of plasma BDNF and reward learning in subjects with rBN and controls. A role of leptin in reward learning is not supported by this study. However, leptin levels were sensitive to a depletion of catecholamine stores in both rBN and controls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
    The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 12/2014; 18(5). DOI:10.1093/ijnp/pyu092 · 5.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Using the Monetary Incentive Delay task with fMRI, reward-related responses in the medial prefrontal cortex were reduced following presentation of aversive film clips (Ossewaarde et al., 2011). Threat of shock has also been shown to reduce reward sensitivity on a signal detection task (Bogdan and Pizzagalli, 2006), and an associated event-related potentials measure (the feedback-related positivity); moreover, these effects were related to genetic variation in a corticotropin-releasing hormone polymorphism (Bogdan et al., 2011). Such stress-related disruptions of reward processing may have important implications for disorders characterized by risk-taking (such as drug addiction and problem gambling) where symptoms or drug-seeking may be elevated by stress exposure (Sinha, 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adolescence is characterized by increases in both perceived stress and risk-taking, although the effects of stress on risk-sensitive decision-making have received little attention in adolescent groups. We report psychophysiological data from the healthy control group of a larger project examining neuroendocrine and neuropsychological function in boys with conduct disorder. The present analysis focussed on healthy male adolescents (n=66) performing a decision-making task that involved selection between two wheel-of-fortune gambles. The task was completed in a neutral state, and again following a psychosocial stress induction that robustly increased salivary cortisol levels and baseline autonomic arousal. Task-related changes in electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) were monitored during the receipt of win and loss outcomes. On gamble choice, stress attenuated the difference in risk taking between the losses-only and wins-only trials (the 'reflection effect') and reduced risk-taking on one further gamble type (i.e. a stress x gamble type interaction). In the neutral condition, EDA and HR deceleration responses were significantly greater for losses compared to wins. This physiological differentiation of losses and wins was reduced under stress, with a significant attenuation of the HR deceleration response. In addition, higher trait impulsivity scores predicted reduced EDA differentiation of the outcomes, and reduced EDA stress reactivity. As a limitation, the order of neutral and stress sessions was not counter-balanced. Reduced psychophysiological discrimination between positive and negative outcomes may contribute to the effects of stress on risky decision-making in adolescents.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 11/2013; 93(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.11.001 · 2.65 Impact Factor
Show more