Two members of the TRPP family of ion channels, Pkd1l3 and Pkd2l1, are co-expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells.
ABSTRACT Taste receptors cells are responsible for detecting a wide variety of chemical stimuli. Several molecules including both G protein coupled receptors and ion channels have been shown to be involved in the detection and transduction of tastants. We report on the expression of two members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels, PKD1L3 and PKD2L1, in taste receptor cells. Both of these channels belong to the larger polycystic kidney disease (PKD or TRPP) subfamily of TRP channels, members of which have been demonstrated to be non-selective cation channels and permeable to both Na(+) and Ca(2+). Pkd1l3 and Pkd2l1 are co-expressed in a select subset of taste receptor cells and therefore may, like other PKD channels, function as a heteromer. We found the taste receptor cells expressing Pkd1l3 and Pkd2l1 to be distinct from those that express components of sweet, bitter and umami signal transduction pathways. These results provide the first evidence for a role of TRPP channels in taste receptor cell function.
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ABSTRACT: Following a screen for neuromuscular mouse mutants, we identified ostes, a novel N-ethyl N-nitrosourea-induced mouse mutant with muscle atrophy. Genetic and biochemical evidence shows that upregulation of the novel, uncharacterized transient receptor potential polycystic (TRPP) channel PKD1L2 (polycystic kidney disease gene 1-like 2) underlies this disease. Ostes mice suffer from chronic neuromuscular impairments including neuromuscular junction degeneration, polyneuronal innervation and myopathy. Ectopic expression of PKD1L2 in transgenic mice reproduced the ostes myopathic changes and, indeed, caused severe muscle atrophy in Tg(Pkd1l2)/Tg(Pkd1l2) mice. Moreover, double-heterozygous mice (ostes/+, Tg(Pkd1l2)/0) suffer from myopathic changes more profound than each heterozygote, indicating positive correlation between PKD1L2 levels and disease severity. We show that, in vivo, PKD1L2 primarily associates with endogenous fatty acid synthase in normal skeletal muscle, and these proteins co-localize to costameric regions of the muscle fibre. In diseased ostes/ostes muscle, both proteins are upregulated, and ostes/ostes mice show signs of abnormal lipid metabolism. This work shows the first role for a TRPP channel in neuromuscular integrity and disease.Human Molecular Genetics 09/2009; 18(19):3553-66. · 7.64 Impact Factor
Article: Ghrelin is produced in taste cells and ghrelin receptor null mice show reduced taste responsivity to salty (NaCl) and sour (citric acid) tastants.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences, food intake and energy balance. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved. Using immunohistochemical analyses, we show that ghrelin, a hormone classically considered to be an appetite-regulating hormone, is present within the taste buds of the tongue. Prepro-ghrelin, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3), ghrelin, its cognate receptor (GHSR), and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT , the enzyme that activates ghrelin) are expressed in Type I, II, III and IV taste cells of mouse taste buds. In addition, ghrelin and GHSR co-localize in the same taste cells, suggesting that ghrelin works in an autocrine manner in taste cells. To determine a role for ghrelin in modifying taste perception, we performed taste behavioral tests using GHSR null mice. GHSR null mice exhibited significantly reduced taste responsivity to sour (citric acid) and salty (sodium chloride) tastants. These findings suggest that ghrelin plays a local modulatory role in determining taste bud signaling and function and could be a novel mechanism for the modulation of salty and sour taste responsivity.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(9):e12729. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The polycystic kidney disease-like ion channel PKD2L1 and its associated partner PKD1L3 are potential candidates for sour taste receptors. PKD2L1 is expressed in type III taste cells that respond to sour stimuli and genetic elimination of cells expressing PKD2L1 substantially reduces chorda tympani nerve responses to sour taste stimuli. However, the contribution of PKD2L1 and PKD1L3 to sour taste responses remains unclear. We made mice lacking PKD2L1 and/or PKD1L3 gene and investigated whole nerve responses to taste stimuli in the chorda tympani or the glossopharyngeal nerve and taste responses in type III taste cells. In mice lacking PKD2L1 gene, chorda tympani nerve responses to sour, but not sweet, salty, bitter, and umami tastants were reduced by 25-45% compared with those in wild type mice. In contrast, chorda tympani nerve responses in PKD1L3 knock-out mice and glossopharyngeal nerve responses in single- and double-knock-out mice were similar to those in wild type mice. Sour taste responses of type III fungiform taste cells (GAD67-expressing taste cells) were also reduced by 25-45% by elimination of PKD2L1. These findings suggest that PKD2L1 partly contributes to sour taste responses in mice and that receptors other than PKDs would be involved in sour detection.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e20007. · 4.09 Impact Factor