N-acetylcysteine and contrast-induced nephropathy in primary angioplasty.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Institute of Cardiology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 07/2006; 354(26):2773-82. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa054209
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty are at high risk for contrast-medium-induced nephropathy because of hemodynamic instability, the need for a high volume of contrast medium, and the lack of effective prophylaxis. We investigated the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of contrast-medium-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing primary angioplasty.
We randomly assigned 354 consecutive patients undergoing primary angioplasty to one of three groups: 116 patients were assigned to a standard dose of N-acetylcysteine (a 600-mg intravenous bolus before primary angioplasty and 600 mg orally twice daily for the 48 hours after angioplasty), 119 patients to a double dose of N-acetylcysteine (a 1200-mg intravenous bolus and 1200 mg orally twice daily for the 48 hours after intervention), and 119 patients to placebo.
The serum creatinine concentration increased 25 percent or more from baseline after primary angioplasty in 39 of the control patients (33 percent), 17 of the patients receiving standard-dose N-acetylcysteine (15 percent), and 10 patients receiving high-dose N-acetylcysteine (8 percent, P<0.001). Overall in-hospital mortality was higher in patients with contrast-medium-induced nephropathy than in those without such nephropathy (26 percent vs. 1 percent, P<0.001). Thirteen patients (11 percent) in the control group died, as did five (4 percent) in the standard-dose N-acetylcysteine group and three (3 percent) in the high-dose N-acetylcysteine group (P=0.02). The rate for the composite end point of death, acute renal failure requiring temporary renal-replacement therapy, or the need for mechanical ventilation was 21 (18 percent), 8 (7 percent), and 6 (5 percent) in the three groups, respectively (P=0.002).
Intravenous and oral N-acetylcysteine may prevent contrast-medium-induced nephropathy with a dose-dependent effect in patients treated with primary angioplasty and may improve hospital outcome. ( number, NCT00237614[]).

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The reports on efficacy of oral hydration treatment for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) in elective radiological procedures and cardiac catheterization remain controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the use of oral hydration regimen for prevention of CIAKI. Comprehensive literature searches for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of outpatient oral hydration treatment was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Systematic Reviews, and from inception until July 4(th), 2014. Primary outcome was the incidence of CIAKI. Six prospective RCTs were included in our analysis. Of 513patients undergoing elective procedures with contrast exposures,45 patients (8.8%) had CIAKI. Of 241 patients with oral hydration regimen, 23 (9.5%) developed CIAKI. Of 272 patients with intravenous (IV) fluid regimen, 22 (8.1%) had CIAKI. Study populations in all included studies had relatively normal kidney function to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3. There was no significant increased risk of CIAKI in oral fluid regimen group compared toIV fluid regimen group (RR = 0.94, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.38-2.31). According to our analysis,there is no evidence that oral fluid regimen is associated with more risk of CIAKI in patients undergoing elective procedures with contrast exposures compared to IV fluid regimen. This finding suggests that the oral fluid regimen might be considered as a possible outpatient treatment option for CIAKI prevention in patients with normal to moderately reduced kidney function.
    12/2014; 6(12):618-24. DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.147977
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with poor outcome. Whether this association differs in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) as compared to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients is unknown.Definitions and Methods: PRODIGY trial patients were defined as stable CAD or ACS according to the initial presentation. CI-AKI was defined as an increase (Δ) of serum creatinine (SCr) ≥25% above baseline. Two endpoints were considered: all-cause death and the composite of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction (MI). The interaction between CI-AKI, clinical setting, and the impact of increasing ΔSCr% cut-offs were also explored.ResultsTwo thousand three patients were enrolled in the PRODIGY trial, 85 patients were excluded for missing SCr data, leading to a population of 1,918 patients. CI-AKI incidence was 6.7% in stable CAD and 12.2% in ACS patients. CI-AKI was associated with all-cause mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38–3.05, P < 0.001] and the composite of death, stroke, or MI [aHR of 1.49, 95% CI 1.13–1.97, P < 0.001]. The risk of CI-AKI for the composite endpoint was higher in stable CAD, P for interaction: 0.048. A ΔSCr of 35% was associated with the highest aHR for all-cause mortality: 2.34 [95% CI, 1.46–3.76, P < 0.001] and the composite of death, stroke, or MI: 1.70 [95% CI, 1.20–2.40, P > 0.001].Conclusions In a large, contemporary, all-comers percutaneous coronary intervention population, CI-AKI was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death and the composite of death, stroke, or MI. While CI-AKI is more common in ACS than in stable CAD patients, its adjusted prognostic impact on the composite endpoint appears to be more pronounced in patients with stable CAD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/ccd.25822 · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arterial complications are a major cause of graft lost after liver transplantation (LT). The aim of our study was to assess the clinical impact of systematic early postoperative injected computed tomographic (CT) scans after LT rather than its performance on demand in the event of abnormalities. Two series of consecutive transplantation patients in different periods (1997-1999, 231 patients versus 2008-2010, 250 patients) were analyzed. During the first period, an injected CT scan was only performed in the event of clinical, biological, or ultrasound abnormalities revealed by tests performed daily during the first week after surgery. During the second period, in addition to standard follow-up examination, an injected CT scan was performed systematically at approximately postoperative day 7. During the first (versus the more recent) period, both recipients (whose ages were 46 ± 13 years versus 50 ± 12 years; P = .004) and donors (whose ages were 42 ± 17 versus 52 ± 17 years; P = .0001) were younger and end-stage liver disease was more common (34% versus 12%; P = .0001), but hepatocellular carcinoma (7% vs 26%; P = .0001) and retransplantation (2% versus 7%; P = .01) were less frequent. Postoperative mortality was higher during the first period (14% versus 4%; P = .0003). The incidence of early arterial thrombosis (<1 month) was similar (1.3% versus 1.6%; P = .78), but that of arterial stenosis was higher with a systematic CT scan (1.7 versus 4.4; P = .07). As a consequence of the early detection and treatment of arterial abnormalities, the repeat LT rate due to late arterial thrombosis was nil in the second period and 2.1% (5/231) in the first period. In conclusion, a systematic CT angiogram at the end of the first postoperative week reduced retransplantation rates due to late hepatic artery thrombosis by detecting patients at risk who required specific treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Transplantation Proceedings 12/2014; 46(10):3536-42. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2014.04.017 · 0.95 Impact Factor


Available from