Doppler echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging in the healthy rabbit: differences of cardiac function during awake and anaesthetised examination.
ABSTRACT In the past years, Doppler echocardiography has evolved into a commonly used technique. More recent sophisticated advances in imaging quality have substantially improved spatial and temporal resolution allowing the adaptation of this technique to small animal models, particularly in rabbits but even in mice. Recently, parameters obtained by Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) have been shown to be more independent of pre- and afterload than classic hemodynamic Doppler measurements. Exploration of animal models may require anaesthesia but there is only very little information on the effect of anaesthesia on echocardiographic parameters in rabbits.
We therefore performed Doppler-echocardiographic examinations of 20 wild-type New Zealand White rabbits in awake state and under light ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia. Special focus was put on the evaluation of global and regional left ventricular systolic and diastolic function using TDI and the myocardial performance index (Tei-index).
Doppler-echocardiographic measurements including TDI in rabbits were feasible to assess cardiac morphology and function within a short examination time. There were some distinct changes of functional parameters during anaesthesia. Exemplary for systolic function, fractional shortening, cardiac output and systolic TDI velocity of the lateral wall decreased distinctly. Global left ventricular function measured by the Tei-index deteriorated.
Doppler echocardiography and TDI can be performed easily, quickly and safely in the rabbit. Anaesthesia with the cardiodepressive ketamine-xylazine shows some distinct Doppler-echocardiographically measurable negative effects on cardiac function. Thus, echocardiography with less cardiodepressive anaesthetic regimes or even without anaesthesia after training of the animals should be considered as alternatives whenever possible.
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ABSTRACT: Four hundred M-mode echocardiographic surveys were distributed to determine interobserver variability in M-mode echocardiographic measurements. This was done with a view toward examining the need and determining the criteria for standardization of measurement. Each survey consisted of five M-mode echocardiograms with a calibration marker, measured by the survey participants anonymously. The echoes were judged of adequate quality for measurement of structures. Seventy-six of the 400 (19%) were returned, allowing comparison of interobserver variability as well as examination of the measurement criteria which were used. Mean measurements and percent uncertainty were derived for each structure for each criterion of measurement. For example, for the aorta, 33% of examiners measured the aorta as an outer/inner or leading edge dimension, and 20% measured it as an outer/outer dimension. The percent uncertainty for the measurement (1.97 SD divided by the mean) showed a mean of 13.8% for the 25 packets of five echoes measured using the former criteria and 24.2% using the latter criteria. For ventricular chamber and cavity measurements, almost one-half of the examiners used the peak of the QRS and one-half of the examiners used the onset of the QRS for determining end-diastole. Estimates of the percent of measurement uncertainty for the septum, posterior wall and left ventricular cavity dimension in this study were 10--25%. They were much higher (40--70%) for the right ventricular cavity and right ventricular anterior wall. The survey shows significant interobserver and interlaboratory variation in measurement when examining the same echoes and indicates a need for ongoing education, quality control and standardization of measurement criteria. Recommendations for new criteria for measurement of M-mode echocardiograms are offered.Circulation 01/1979; 58(6):1072-83. · 15.20 Impact Factor
- Journal of Cardiology 09/1995; 26(2):135-6. · 2.30 Impact Factor