Tallal P, Gaab N. Dynamic auditory processing, musical experience and language development. Trends Neurosci 29: 382-390

Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.
Trends in Neurosciences (Impact Factor: 13.56). 08/2006; 29(7):382-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.tins.2006.06.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Children with language-learning impairments (LLI) form a heterogeneous population with the majority having both spoken and written language deficits as well as sensorimotor deficits, specifically those related to dynamic processing. Research has focused on whether or not sensorimotor deficits, specifically auditory spectrotemporal processing deficits, cause phonological deficit, leading to language and reading impairments. New trends aimed at resolving this question include prospective longitudinal studies of genetically at-risk infants, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, and studies aimed at evaluating the effects of auditory training (including musical training) on brain organization for language. Better understanding of the origins of developmental LLI will advance our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in language development and lead to more effective educational and intervention strategies. This review is part of the INMED/TINS special issue "Nature and nurture in brain development and neurological disorders", based on presentations at the annual INMED/TINS symposium (

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Available from: Nadine Gaab, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "Studies investigating the musical and extra-musical benefits of music engagement for young people provide evidence of positive cognitive, emotional and social benefits from music participation (see Hallam, 2010 for a critical review). Findings suggest that music engagement contributes to the development and/or enhancement of executive functions (working memory, self-inhibition, and mental flexibility), and cognitive processing skills (Bigand & Poulin- Carronnat, 2006; Gaab et al., 2005; Ho, Cheung, & Chan, 2003; Jones & Estell, 2007; Patel & Iverson, 2007; Schellenberg, 2003, 2006; Tallal & Gaab, 2006; Thompson, Schellenberg, & Husain, 2004) with strong results evidenced in children from 'at-risk' populations (Portowitz, Lichtenstein, Egorova, & Brand, 2009) or with language difficulties (Humpal & Wolf, 2003; Portowitz & Klein, 2007). Beyond the cognitive domain evidence suggests that music engagement has psychosocial benefits for young people (Barrett & Smigiel, 2007; Hallam, 2010; O'Neill, 2005, 2006; Saarikallio & Erkkila, 2007; Saunders, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article reports an investigation of the musical and extra-musical outcomes of participation in a music programme for students in four socioeconomically disadvantaged school settings. Drawing on the theory of Positive Youth Development, which provides a focus on the positive assets young people bring to their engagement rather than perceived deficits and risks, the findings indicate that PYD outcomes do arise from music participation in these settings. Specifically, students evidence developing competencies in the PYD domains of Competency (musical, academic, social), Confidence, Connection, Character, and Caring. The findings also indicate those learning and teaching strategies and environmental supports that foster the development of PYD domains in these settings.
    Research Studies in Music Education 06/2015; 37(1):37-54. DOI:10.1177/1321103X14560320
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    • "APD may have severe consequences on a child's life if undiagnosed and untreated (Bamiou et al, 2001). AP deficits have been causally linked to developmental language disorders (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 1996; Bailey and Snowling, 2002; Benasich et al, 2002; McArthur and Bishop, 2004a, 2004b; Tallal and Gaab 2006; Wible et al, 2005). Oral language acquisition depends mainly on the processing of acoustic information . "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A deficit in the processing of auditory information may underlie problems in understanding speech in the presence of background noise, degraded speech, and in following spoken instructions. Children with auditory processing disorders are challenged in the classroom because of ambient noise levels and maybe at risk for learning disabilities. Purpose: 1) Set up and execute screening protocol for auditory processing performance (APP) in primary school children. 2) Construct database for APP in the classroom. 3) Set critical limits for deviant performance. Our hypothesis is that screening for APP in the classroom identifies pupils at risk for auditory processing disorders. Research Design, Sample, and Methods: Study consisted of two phases. Phase 1: 2,015 pupils were selected from fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-graders using stratified random sampling with the proportional allocation method. Male and female students were equally represented. Otoscopic examination, screening audiometery, and screening tests for auditory processing (AP) abilities (Pitch Pattern Sequence Test [PPST], speech perception in noise [SPIN] right, SPIN left, and Dichotic Digit Test) were conducted. A questionnaire emphasizing auditory listening behaviors (ALB) was answered by classroom teacher. Phase 2 included 69 pupils who were randomly selected based on percentile scores of phase 1. Students were examined for the corresponding full version AP tests in addition to Auditory Fusion Test-Revised and masking level difference. Intelligence quotient and learning disabilities were evaluated. Results: Phase 1: Results are displayed in frequency polygons for10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles score for each AP test. Fourth-graders scored significantly lower than fifth- and sixth-graders on all tests. Males scored lower than females on PPST. A composite score was calculated to represent a summed score performance for PPST, SPIN right ear, SPIN left ear, and Dichotic Digit Test. Scores
    04/2015; 26(4):355-69. DOI:10.3766/jaaa.26.4.4
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    • "Language and melody share some processing systems. Musical proficiencies which boost processing can consequentlyinfluence on the perception of language which in turn shows it on reading.Musical training hones the brain's primary encoding of sound which results to enriched performance (Tallal and Gaab, 2006; Patel and Iverson, 2007) cultivating the skill to discriminate between quickly varying sounds (Gaab et al. 2005), and improving aural discernment (Schlaug et al., 2005). This has an influence on the cortical processing of linguistic tonal forms. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on music which definitely will be helpful to us in so many ways in different aspects of our lives. It acts as a stress reliever, helps in learning, medicine during our sickness, and encourages in personal development and well being. There are different experiments made to prove that heavy rock music destroys living things whereas orchestral music helps in growth and development. Different kinds of music have different effects on the listeners.An organ music played in a church, jazz music played in a bar, trance music played in a discotheque etc. This paperdeals with the power of music and the numerous effects they have on people. © 2015, Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research. All rights reserved.
    Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 03/2015; 6(2). DOI:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n2s1p244
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