Tallal P, Gaab N. Dynamic auditory processing, musical experience and language development. Trends Neurosci 29: 382-390

Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.
Trends in Neurosciences (Impact Factor: 13.56). 08/2006; 29(7):382-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.tins.2006.06.003
Source: PubMed


Children with language-learning impairments (LLI) form a heterogeneous population with the majority having both spoken and written language deficits as well as sensorimotor deficits, specifically those related to dynamic processing. Research has focused on whether or not sensorimotor deficits, specifically auditory spectrotemporal processing deficits, cause phonological deficit, leading to language and reading impairments. New trends aimed at resolving this question include prospective longitudinal studies of genetically at-risk infants, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, and studies aimed at evaluating the effects of auditory training (including musical training) on brain organization for language. Better understanding of the origins of developmental LLI will advance our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in language development and lead to more effective educational and intervention strategies. This review is part of the INMED/TINS special issue "Nature and nurture in brain development and neurological disorders", based on presentations at the annual INMED/TINS symposium (

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    • "Two broad lines of research emphasize different cognitive-level manifestations and/or causes, either bottom-up or top-down, for the phonological processing deficit . Bottom-up explanations suggests basic auditory processing problems are the underlying basis of the phonological deficit (Farmer & Klein, 1995; Tallal & Gaab, 2006). In this account, poor auditory and speech processing leads to fuzzy or inexact speech sound representations, which in turn constrain phonological processing (Pasquini, Corriveau, & Goswami, 2007; Talcott & Witton, 2002). "
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    • "There is a growing body of research that links reading failure to auditory processing disorders (Tallal, 2012). Tallal and Gaab (2006) suggested relationships between musical training, auditory processing, language, and literacy skills. More recently, Tallal (2012) demonstrated how auditory interventions can improve reading. "
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    ABSTRACT: Systematic reviews of research provide valuable information for researchers, clinicians, and educators. A single Cochrane Review reports on music and dyslexia; however, the struct inclusion criteria used in the study required randomized controlled trials (RCT) which resulted in no study being able to be included. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and analyze research on music and dyslexia. Through computer-based searches utilizing specific keywords and the ancestry approach, 23 studies met inclusion criteria. Once identified, each study was reviewed according to participants, age, purpose, independent and dependent variables, and results. A table was created to outline the analysis of each study. The majority of the 23 articles in the review included children. A few studies focused on the challenges of studying music, in particular problems with reading notation, that students with dyslexia may experience and most of the other studies explored how music can be used to improve literacy skills, or at least be used as a means to test for neural processing of auditory information, and thus could offer the potential to inform early diagnosis. The findings from this review reveal that music training is considered to function as a remediation tool to improve literacy skills for children with dyslexia, although the specific type of music support to achieve predictable outcomes needs to be further investigated. Some limitations, implications for clinical practice, and suggestions for future research are provided.
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    • "Studies investigating the musical and extra-musical benefits of music engagement for young people provide evidence of positive cognitive, emotional and social benefits from music participation (see Hallam, 2010 for a critical review). Findings suggest that music engagement contributes to the development and/or enhancement of executive functions (working memory, self-inhibition, and mental flexibility), and cognitive processing skills (Bigand & Poulin- Carronnat, 2006; Gaab et al., 2005; Ho, Cheung, & Chan, 2003; Jones & Estell, 2007; Patel & Iverson, 2007; Schellenberg, 2003, 2006; Tallal & Gaab, 2006; Thompson, Schellenberg, & Husain, 2004) with strong results evidenced in children from 'at-risk' populations (Portowitz, Lichtenstein, Egorova, & Brand, 2009) or with language difficulties (Humpal & Wolf, 2003; Portowitz & Klein, 2007). Beyond the cognitive domain evidence suggests that music engagement has psychosocial benefits for young people (Barrett & Smigiel, 2007; Hallam, 2010; O'Neill, 2005, 2006; Saarikallio & Erkkila, 2007; Saunders, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article reports an investigation of the musical and extra-musical outcomes of participation in a music programme for students in four socioeconomically disadvantaged school settings. Drawing on the theory of Positive Youth Development, which provides a focus on the positive assets young people bring to their engagement rather than perceived deficits and risks, the findings indicate that PYD outcomes do arise from music participation in these settings. Specifically, students evidence developing competencies in the PYD domains of Competency (musical, academic, social), Confidence, Connection, Character, and Caring. The findings also indicate those learning and teaching strategies and environmental supports that foster the development of PYD domains in these settings.
    Research Studies in Music Education 06/2015; 37(1):37-54. DOI:10.1177/1321103X14560320
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