Diels-Alder ligation of peptides and proteins.
ABSTRACT The development of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition as a new method for the site-specific chemoselective ligation of peptides and proteins under mild conditions is reported. Peptides equipped with a 2,4-hexadienyl ester and an N-terminal maleimide react in aqueous media to give cycloadducts in high yields and depending on the amino acid sequence with high stereoselectivity. Except for the cysteine SH group the transformation is compatible with all amino acid side chain functional groups. For ligation to proteins the hexadienyl group was attached to avidin and streptavidin noncovalently by means of complex formation with a biotinylated peptide or by covalent attachment of a hexadienyl ester-containing label to lysine side chains incorporated into the proteins. Site-specific attachment of the hexadienyl unit into a Rab protein was achieved by means of expressed protein ligation followed by protection of the generated cysteine SH by means of Ellman's reagent. The protein reacted with different maleimido-modified peptides under mild conditions to give the fully functional cycloadducts in high yield. The results demonstrate that the Diels-Alder ligation offers an advantageous and technically straightforward new opportunity for the site-specific equipment of peptides and proteins with further functional groups and labels. It proceeds under very mild conditions and is compatible with most functional groups found in proteins. Its combination with other ligation methods, in particular expressed protein ligation is feasible.
- SourceAvailable from: Chandra M. R. VollaCurrent Organic Chemistry 03/2013; 17(6):610. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The copper (I)-catalyzed alkyne azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) or 'click' reaction, is a highly versatile reaction that can be performed under a variety of reaction conditions including various solvents, a wide pH and temperature range, and using different copper sources, with or without additional ligands or reducing agents. This reaction is highly selective and can be performed in the presence of other functional moieties. The flexibility and selectivity has resulted in growing interest in the application of CuAAC in various fields. In this review, we briefly describe the importance of the structural folding of peptides and proteins and how the 1,4-disubstituted triazole product of the CuAAC reaction is a suitable isoster for an amide bond. However the major focus of the review is the application of this reaction to produce peptide conjugates for tagging and targeting purpose, linkers for multifunctional biomacromolecules, and reporter ions for peptide and protein analysis.Molecules 01/2013; 18(11):13148-13174. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Site-specific modification of proteins is a major challenge in modern chemical biology due to the large number of reactive functional groups typically present in polypeptides. Because of its importance in biology and medicine, the development of methods for site-specific modification of proteins is an area of intense research. Selective protein modification procedures have been useful for oriented protein immobilization, for studies of naturally-occurring post-translational modifications, for creating antibody-drug conjugates, for the introduction of fluorophores and other small molecules on to proteins, for examining protein structure, folding, dynamics and protein-protein interactions and for the preparation of protein-polymer conjugates. One of the most important approaches for protein labeling is to incorporate bioorthogonal functionalities into proteins at specific sites via enzymatic reactions. The incorporated tags then enable reactions that are chemoselective, whose functional groups are both inert in biological media, and which do not occur natively in proteins or other macromolecules. This review article summarizes the enzymatic strategies, which enable site-specific functionalization of proteins with a variety of different functional groups. The enzymes covered in this review include formylglycine generating enzyme, sialyl transferase, phosphopantetheinyl transferase, O-GlcNAc post-translational modification, sortagging, transglutaminase, farnesyl transferase, biotin ligase, lipoic acid ligase and N-myristoyl transferase.Bioconjugate Chemistry 07/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor