Diels-Alder ligation of peptides and proteins.
ABSTRACT The development of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition as a new method for the site-specific chemoselective ligation of peptides and proteins under mild conditions is reported. Peptides equipped with a 2,4-hexadienyl ester and an N-terminal maleimide react in aqueous media to give cycloadducts in high yields and depending on the amino acid sequence with high stereoselectivity. Except for the cysteine SH group the transformation is compatible with all amino acid side chain functional groups. For ligation to proteins the hexadienyl group was attached to avidin and streptavidin noncovalently by means of complex formation with a biotinylated peptide or by covalent attachment of a hexadienyl ester-containing label to lysine side chains incorporated into the proteins. Site-specific attachment of the hexadienyl unit into a Rab protein was achieved by means of expressed protein ligation followed by protection of the generated cysteine SH by means of Ellman's reagent. The protein reacted with different maleimido-modified peptides under mild conditions to give the fully functional cycloadducts in high yield. The results demonstrate that the Diels-Alder ligation offers an advantageous and technically straightforward new opportunity for the site-specific equipment of peptides and proteins with further functional groups and labels. It proceeds under very mild conditions and is compatible with most functional groups found in proteins. Its combination with other ligation methods, in particular expressed protein ligation is feasible.
- SourceAvailable from: Alexandra Maria Hillebrand-Voiculescu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Modification of proteins with isoprenoid lipids is a widespread phenomenon in eukaryotic organisms that has received much attention due to its involvement in the progression of several diseases including cancer. Progress in studies of prenylated proteins has been hampered by difficulties associated with isolation of these proteins from native or recombinant sources. Small GTPases of the Rab family represent a particularly difficult example since they are doubly C-terminally geranylgeranylated and in some cases methylated. Here, we report an efficient and versatile strategy for the synthesis of mono- and digeranylgeranylated fluorescent RabGTPases using a combination of chemical synthesis and expressed protein ligation. Using this approach we generated fluorescent mono- and diprenylated Rab7 proteins that display near-native properties and form stoichiometric complexes with their natural chaperone REP-1. We demonstrate that the complex formed from semisynthetic monoprenylated Rab7 and REP-1 represents a genuine intermediate of the Rab prenylation reaction and thus provides a unique tool for studies of the Rab prenylation mechanism. Semisynthetic Rab7 proteins were used to develop a novel fluorescence-based in vitro prenylation assay. Using this assay we dissected the mechanism of the Rab7 double-geranylgeranylation reaction mediated by Rab geranylgeranyl transferase. We conclude that the reaction follows a random sequential mechanism. These results highlight the usefulness of the semisynthetic reaction intermediates in the study of protein posttranslational modification.Journal of the American Chemical Society 01/2005; 126(50):16368-78. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rab/Ypt guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) represent a family of key membrane traffic regulators in eukaryotic cells whose function is governed by the guanosine diphosphate (GDP) dissociation inhibitor (RabGDI). Using a combination of chemical synthesis and protein engineering, we generated and crystallized the monoprenylated Ypt1:RabGDI complex. The structure of the complex was solved to 1.5 angstrom resolution and provides a structural basis for the ability of RabGDI to inhibit the release of nucleotide by Rab proteins. Isoprenoid binding requires a conformational change that opens a cavity in the hydrophobic core of its domain II. Analysis of the structure provides a molecular basis for understanding a RabGDI mutant that causes mental retardation in humans.Science 11/2003; 302(5645):646-50. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Production of recombinant proteins is an important prerequisite for biotechnology and life sciences in general. However, there is a paucity of methods for production of posttranslationally modified recombinant proteins or proteins with non-native functional groups, such as fluorophores, spin labels, and so forth. In this work we have used a combination of organic synthesis and in vitro protein ligation to construct monoprenylated Rab7 GTPase. The protein was prepared from a recombinant N-terminal portion and a peptide mimicking the C terminus of Rab7. For construction of a synthetic six-amino-acid-long fluorescent monoprenylated peptide, we used a block condensation strategy. Ligation was achieved with a yield of >70%. The resulting protein was purified from the unligated peptide by a combination of organic extraction and phase partitioning and refolding. The refolded monoprenylated semisynthetic Rab7 protein (Rab7GG) formed a stable complex with its natural chaperone REP-1 (Rab escort protein 1) and could serve as an acceptor of the second prenyl group in the enzymatic prenylation reaction. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we characterized the interaction of the Rab7GG:REP-1 complex with Rab geranylgeranyl transferase and came to the conclusion that it functioned as a genuine intermediate of the prenylation reaction. Thus, we present the first example of the in vitro generation of a semisynthetic lipidated protein using the native chemical ligation method.Journal of the American Chemical Society 06/2002; 124(20):5648-9. · 10.68 Impact Factor