Article

The effect ofEchinacea purpurea,Astragalus membranaceus andGlycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 expression and immune cell activation in humans

Helfgott Research Institute, National College of Naturopathic Medicine, Portland, OR, USA.
Phytotherapy Research (Impact Factor: 2.4). 08/2006; 20(8):687-95. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1938
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The increasing use of medicinal herbs among the general public has piqued the need for scientific-based research to determine the mechanism of action of herbs administered orally in human subjects. The ability of three herbs, Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra, to activate immune cells in human subjects was assessed in this pilot study. The effect of these herbs when ingested for 7 days was measured both when administered singly, and in combination, using flow cytometry. The primary cell activation marker measured was CD69. The results demonstrate that Echinacea, Astragalus and Glycyrrhiza herbal tinctures stimulated immune cells as quantified by CD69 expression on CD4 and CD8 T cells. This activation took place within 24 h of ingestion, and continued for at least 7 days. In addition, these three herbs had an additive effect on CD69 expression when used in combination.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
111 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Beta-cryptoxanthin (β-Crp), a mono-hydroxylated β-carotene, is a major dietary provitamin A xanthophyll. The immunostimulatory effect of β-Crp was examined using human hybridoma HB4C5 cells and mouse primary lymphocytes in vitro and using mice in vivo. IgM production by the HB4C5 cells and both IgA and IgG productions by mouse primary lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph node and spleen were accelerated in vitro by the treatment of β-Crp in dose-dependent manners. Afterwards 6-week-old female BALB/c mice were administered with a low or high dose of β-Crp for 14 days, mesenteric lymph node and spleen were excised and the immunoglobulin production levels were evaluated using lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph node and spleen in vivo. Results exhibited that all of IgA, IgG, and IgM productions by lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph node were increased. Especially, the IgG production increased with statistically significant differences in both of the low and high dose groups against the control group. The immunostimulatory effect on splenocytes was also observed although not as clear as on lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph node. Overall results suggest that β-Crp may stimulate the humoral immunity in mammals. Hence, β-Crp might have a potentially significant impact on human health and on prevention of diseases.
    Journal of Functional Foods 07/2012; 4(3):618–625. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2012.04.001 · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Astragalus membranaceus and Salvia miltiorrhiza have been used for centuries in China to treat liver diseases. Previous studies have shown that these herbs and their extracts inhibit the development of liver fibrosis and the proliferation and invasion of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Further study of their pharmacological effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed. To investigate the effects of Compound Astragalus and Salvia miltiorrhiza Extract (CASE) on diethylinitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Male rats were divided into five groups, with the first group serving as normal control, the second group receiving 0.2% DEN solution five times a week for 14 weeks, and the third to fifth group receiving the same DEN as in the second group together with CASE at the doses of 60, 120, and 240mg/kg per day for 16 weeks respectively. Hepatoma incidence, serum enzymes levels, degree of fibrosis and hydroxyproline content were evaluated and compared across the five groups to determine CASE's suppression of fibrosis and HCC progression. In addition, an in vitro experiment using HepG2 cells was conduct to verify CASE's effect on the transcription of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA. CASE treatment significantly reduced the incidence and multiplicity of DEN-induced HCC development in a dose-dependent manner. It significantly suppressed the elevation of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hyaluronic acid, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin, and significantly lessened the depression of serum total protein in DEN-induced HCC rats. CASE treatment also significantly suppressed the elevated expression of GST-P and α-SMA. The in vitro experiment confirmed that CASE inhibits the transcription of PAI-1 mRNA in HepG2 cells induced by TGF-β1 in a dose-dependent manner. CASE suppresses DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting fibrosis and PAI-1 mRNA transcription, suggesting its potential clinical application in preventing and treating human HCC.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.10.022 · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the domain of nutrition, exploring the diet-health linkages is major area of research. The outcomes of such interventions led to widespread acceptance of functional and nutraceutical foods; however, augmenting immunity is a major concern of dietary regimens. Indeed, the immune system is incredible arrangement of specific organs and cells that enabled humans to carry out defense against undesired responses. Its proper functionality is essential to maintain the body homeostasis. Array of plants and their components hold immunomodulating properties. Their possible inclusion in diets could explore new therapeutic avenues to enhanced immunity against diseases. The review intended to highlight the importance of garlic (Allium sativum), green tea (Camellia sinensis), ginger (Zingiber officinale), purple coneflower (Echinacea), black cumin (Nigella sativa), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Astragalus and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) as natural immune boosters. These plants are bestowed with functional ingredients that may provide protection against various menaces. Modes of their actions include boosting and functioning of immune system, activation and suppression of immune specialized cells, interfering in several pathways that eventually led to improvement in immune responses and defense system. In addition, some of these plants carry free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities that are helpful against cancer insurgence. Nevertheless, interaction between drugs and herbs/botanicals should be well investigated before recommended for their safe use, and such information must be disseminated to the allied stakeholders.
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 02/2014; 54(10):1298-308. DOI:10.1080/10408398.2011.633249 · 3.73 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
32 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014