Community outreach with weekly delivery of anti-retroviral drugs compared to cognitive-behavioural health care team-based approach to improve adherence among indigent women newly starting HAART.

Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College Of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Room #465 EC, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
AIDS Care (Impact Factor: 1.6). 06/2006; 18(4):332-8. DOI: 10.1080/09540120500162155
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sustained virological suppression requires adherence to >95% of doses of therapy. Overall there is paucity of data on adherence interventions among women and post-intervention outcomes. In this pilot study, we evaluated a novel strategy of weekly delivery of medications (Directly Delivered Therapy: DDT) for six months using an outreach worker (ORW), among ARV naïve indigent women starting HAART and compared the 'during intervention' and 'post-intervention' outcomes to the health care team (a nurse educator, a case worker, a pharmacist and social worker/drug addictions counsellor) based approach termed Adherence Coordination Services (ACS) and the Standard of Care (SoC) historical referent group. The baseline characteristics of the three groups were comparable. The proportion of women who achieved sustained virologic suppression in 4-8 month period for DDT; ACS and SoC groups were 86% (18/21); 54% (6/11); and 36% (8/22) (P<0.004); and in the 10-14 month period were 80% (12/15); 54% (6/11) and 45%(10/22) (P=0.036 for DDT vs. SoC). Retention rate in the DDT was 87%, and 92% of 307 ORW visits were kept, and post-intervention satisfaction was high. Short-term weekly delivery of medications using a community based liaison is a feasible, acceptable and a cost-effective strategy for improving both short-term and perhaps long-term adherence among women initiating their first HAART regimen.

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    ABSTRACT: Objetivo: Describir la educación, investigación, practica y política relacionadas con las intervenciones farmacéuticas para mejorar el cumplimiento de la medicación en establecimientos comunitarios en Estados Unidos. Métodos: Los autores utilizaron Medline e International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (desde 1990) para identificar los estudios de intervención de farmacia comunitaria y ambulatoria que trataban de mejorar el cumplimiento de la medicación. Los autores también buscaron en literatura primaria usando Ovid para identificar estudios relativos a la enseñanza de farmacia sobre cumplimiento de la medicación. Se revisaron las bibliografías de los estudios relevantes para identificar literatura adicional. Buscamos en los sumarios de tres revistas de educación de farmacia de Estados Unidos y se revisó la web de la Asociación Americana de Facultades de Farmacia a la busca de materiales sobre principios de educación sobre cumplimiento. Las políticas relacionadas con cumplimiento de medicación se identificaron mediante lo que era conocido por los autores desde su experiencia profesional, asistencia a congresos y revistas farmacéuticas. Resultados: Investigación y práctica: se identificaron 29 estudios: 18 ensayos controlados aleatorizados; 3 estudios de cohorte prospectivos; 2 estudios de cohorte retrospectivos; 5 estudios de caso control; y otro estudio. Hubo una considerable variabilidad en los tipos de intervenciones y en el uso de medidas del cumplimiento. Muchas de las intervenciones eran realizadas por farmacéuticos con formación clínica avanzada y no por típicos farmacéuticos comunitarios. Los efectos positivos de las intervenciones disminuyeron o no se mantuvieron después de que las intervenciones desaparecieron. Aunque no se evaluó formalmente, en general, las farmacias comunitarias normales no evaluaban rutinariamente y/o intervenían en el cumplimiento de la medicación. Educación: Los grupos nacionales de educación de farmacia apoyan la necesidad de que los farmacéuticos aprendan y usen habilidades relacionadas con el cumplimiento. Los esfuerzos educativos relacionados con el cumplimiento se han centrado en el conocimiento de los estudiantes de las barreras al cumplimiento y en las habilidades de comunicación necesarias para envolver a los pacientes en un cambio actitudinal. Política: Varios cambios en el ejercicio de la farmacia y en la legislación nacional han proporcionado a los farmacéuticos la oportunidad de intervenir y monitorizar el cumplimiento de la medicación. Algunos de estos cambios incluyeron el uso de tecnologías y la provisión de servicios especializados para mejorar el cumplimiento. Conclusiones: Los investigadores y facultativos necesitan evaluar modelos factibles y sostenibles para los farmacéuticos en la comunidad para ayudar consistente y eficientemente a pacientes en su mejor uso de las medicaciones y mejorar sus resultados en salud.
    Pharmacy Practice 03/2010; 8(1):1-17.


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