Article

Developmental assessment of competence from early childhood to middle adolescence.

Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Journal of Adolescence (Impact Factor: 2.05). 01/2007; 29(6):857-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.04.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study represents a developmentally informed, empirically validated examination of competence across multiple domains (Social, Cognitive, Emotional well-being), gender and age (early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence, middle adolescence). Competence indicators were created and the structure of these domains was tested using multi-method, multi-informant data collected on 191 participants drawn from a prospective study of at-risk children. The results indicated that inter-individual differences in Cognitive and Social competence were stable across time, whereas inter-individual differences in Emotional well-being were stable only between early and middle adolescence. While the strength of stability of Cognitive competence was similar across different time points, the stability of Social competence declined after middle childhood, suggesting more inter-individual variability with regard to change. The findings also indicated that both the structure and the stability of competence are similar for boys and girls.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
273 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using an ecological framework, this 2-wave longitudinal study examined the effects of parentification on youth adjustment across the transition to adolescence in a high-risk, low-income sample of African American (58%) and European American (42%) mother–child dyads (T1 Mage = 10.17 years, T2 Mage = 14.89 years; 52.4% female). Children's provision of family caregiving was moderately stable from early to late adolescence. Emotional and instrumental parentification evidenced distinct long-term effects on adolescents' psychopathology and the quality of the parent–child relationship. Ethnicity moderated these relations. Emotional and instrumental parentification behaviors were associated with predominantly negative outcomes among European American youth in the form of increased externalizing behavior problems and decreased parent–child relationship quality, whereas emotional parentification was associated with positive outcomes among African American youth in the form of increased parent–child relationship quality, and instrumental parentification was neutral. These findings support a multidimensional view of parentification as a set of culturally embedded phenomena whose effects can only be understood in consideration of the context in which they occur.Utilizando un marco ecológico, este estudio longitudinal de dos tandas examinó los efectos de la parentificación en la adaptación de los jóvenes durante la transición a la adolescencia en una muestra de díadas madre-hijo (T1 edad promedio = 10,17 años, T2 edad promedio = 14,89 años; 52,4% femenino) afroamericanas (58%) y euroamericanas (42%) relativamente de alto riesgo y bajos recursos. El cuidado familiar brindado a los niños fue moderadamente estable desde la adolescencia temprana hasta la tardía. La parentificación emocional e instrumental demostró efectos marcados a largo plazo en la psicopatología de los adolescentes y en la calidad de la relación madre-hijo. El origen étnico moderó estas relaciones. Los comportamientos de parentificación emocional e instrumental estuvieron asociados con resultados predominantemente negativos entre los jóvenes euroamericanos en forma de mayores problemas de comportamiento externalizador y menor calidad de la relación madre-hijo, mientras que la parentificación emocional estuvo asociada con resultados positivos entre los jóvenes afroamericanos en forma de mejor calidad de la relación madre-hijo. La parentificación instrumental fue neutra. Estos resultados respaldan una perspectiva multidimensional de la parentificación como conjunto de fenómenos integrados culturalmente cuyos efectos solo pueden comprenderse teniendo en cuenta el contexto donde ocurren.本项双波纵向研究采用生态化框架,调查了亲职化在青春过渡适应期对青少年的影响。研究样本选用了相对高风险低收入的非裔美国(58%)和欧裔美国(42%)人群中的母子二元关系(T1 Mage = 10.17 年, T2 Mage = 14.89 年,52.4% 女性).从青春期早期到青春期晚期(样本中)儿童对家庭提供的照料保持适度稳定。情感亲职化和实际功能方面的亲职化均呈现出对青少年精神病理学和亲子关系质量鲜明而长期的影响。种族因素对这些关系具有调节作用。情感和实际功能方面的亲职化行为在欧裔美国青少年中普遍体现为负面消极的影响,表现为外显化行为问题的增多和亲子关系质量的下降。而情感亲职化对非裔美国青少年有积极的影响,表现为亲子关系质量的提升。实际功能方面的亲职化对非裔美国青少年的影响为中性(非积极非消极)。这些发现支持我们用多维度的视角看待亲职化问题,将其视为一系列植根于特定文化中的现象,而其影响也只能在所发生的特定文化背景中被充分认识和理解。
    Family Process 03/2014; · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Violence is considered one of the most important public health problems among Latino countries. In Colombia, approximately 41% of Medellin's inhabitants have witnessed a homicide, 75% have witnessed an aggressive incident, and 40% have been victims of other types of violent incidents. Despite increased national/international attention paid to the effects of neighborhood violence exposure on childhood depression, little is still known about this phenomenon in non-clinical samples. This study examined neighborhood violence exposure and depression (negative mood, interpersonal problems, ineffectiveness, anhedonia, and negative self-esteem) among N = 320 8-12 years old youth. Data were collected from public schools in Medellin during 2009. Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory was used to assess depression; neighborhood violence exposure was measured using Medellin's Human Rights report on high-low violence rates neighborhoods where participants lived and/or attended school. Results show that 26 children reported depressive symptoms (a prevalence of 8.9 % in the total sample). Among early adolescents (boys and girls), exposure to higher levels of violence was associated with greater ineffectiveness. Gender did not moderate the relationship between violence exposure and depression subscales. Results raise awareness about the importance to further exploring other factors related to neighborhood violence exposure and depression (e.g., developmental stage, gender).
    The Spanish Journal of Psychology 01/2013; 16:E64. · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Young children are disproportionately exposed to interpersonal trauma (maltreatment, witnessing intimate partner violence [IPV]) and appear particularly susceptible to negative sequelae. Little is known about the factors influencing vulnerability to traumatic stress responses and other negative outcomes in early life. This study examined associations among interpersonal trauma exposure, sociodemographic risk, developmental competence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 200 children assessed from birth to first grade via standardized observations, record reviews, and maternal and teacher interviews. More severe PTSD symptoms were predicted by greater trauma exposure (r = .43), greater sociodemographic risk (r = .22), and lower developmental competence (rs = −.31 and −.54 for preschool and school-age developmental competence, respectively). Developmental competence partially mediated the association between trauma exposure and symptoms. Trauma exposure fully mediated the association between sociodemographic risk and symptoms. Neither sociodemographic risk nor developmental competence moderated trauma exposure effects on symptoms. The findings suggest that (a) exposure to maltreatment and IPV has additive effects on posttraumatic stress risk in early life, (b) associations between sociodemographic adversity and poor mental health may be attributable to increased trauma exposure in disadvantaged populations, and (c) early exposures have a negative cascade effect on developmental competence and mental health. Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS 標題:早年經歷人際創傷的幼童中社會人口統計學風險,發展能力和PTSD症狀。 撮要:幼童大至不成比例地地經歷人際創傷(即虐待和目睹親密伴侶暴力〔IPV〕)並受壞結果影響。早年創傷壓力反應及其他壞後果的弱點因素大多卻是未知的。本研究檢視200名兒童,從出生到一年級作標準化觀察,紀錄回顧,母親和教師面訪,以確定人際創傷經歷,社會人口統計學風險,發展能力,和創傷後壓力症(PTSD)症狀的關係。嚴重創傷經歷(r = .43),高社會人口統計學風險(r = .22) 和低發展能力(rs = -.31和-.54分別是學前和學齡發展能力)都預測嚴重PTSD症狀。發展功能局部調整創傷經歷和症狀之間的關係。創傷經歷卻全面調整社會人口統計學風險和症狀的關連。但社會人口統計學風險或發展能力卻未能調節創傷經歷對症狀的效果。結果建議:1.虐待和IPV經歷對早年創傷後壓力風險有添加效應,2.社會人口統計學逆境和精神健康問題的關連可能影響弱勢社群有較多創傷經歷,3.早年經歷對發展能力和精神健康有着負面梯級效應。 标题:早年经历人际创伤的幼童中社会人口统计学风险,发展能力和PTSD症状。 撮要:幼童大至不成比例地地经历人际创伤(即虐待和目睹亲密伴侣暴力〔IPV〕)并受坏结果影响。早年创伤压力反应及其他坏后果的弱点因素大多却是未知的。本研究检视200名儿童,从出生到一年级作标准化观察,纪录回顾,母亲和教师面访,以确定人际创伤经历,社会人口统计学风险,发展能力,和创伤后压力症(PTSD)症状的关系。严重创伤经历(r = .43),高社会人口统计学风险(r = .22) 和低发展能力(rs = -.31和-.54分别是学前和学龄发展能力)都预测严重PTSD症状。发展功能局部调整创伤经历和症状之间的关系。创伤经历却全面调整社会人口统计学风险和症状的关系。但社会人口统计学风险或发展能力却未能调节创伤经历对症状的效果。结果建议:1.虐待和IPV经历对早年创伤后压力风险有添加效应,2.社会人口统计学逆境和精神健康问题的关连可能影响弱势社群有较多创伤经历,3.早年经历对发展能力和精神健康有着负面梯级效应。
    Journal of Traumatic Stress 12/2013; 26(6). · 2.72 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
57 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014