CD4 decline and incidence of opportunistic infections in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for prophylaxis and treatment.
ABSTRACT To determine the rate of CD4 decline and the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) among antiretroviral therapy-naive South African HIV-infected patients and inform timing of OI prophylaxis.
We used mixed-effect models to estimate CD4 cell decline by CD4 cell count strata in HIV-infected patients in the Cape Town AIDS Cohort between 1984 and 2000. Stratum-specific OI incidence per 100 person-years of observation was determined using incidence density analysis.
Nine hundred seventy-four patients with 2 or more CD4 cell counts were included. CD4 counts declined by 47.1 cells/microL per year in the stratum with more than 500 cells/microL stratum, 30.6 cells/microL per year in the stratum with 351 to 500 cells/microL, and 20.5 cells/microL per year in the stratum with 201 to 350 cells/microL. Tuberculosis and oral candidiasis were the only OIs that occurred frequently in the stratum with more than 200 CD4 cells/microL. Rates of chronic diarrhea, wasting syndrome, tuberculosis, and oral and esophageal candidiasis increased in the stratum with less than 200 cells/microL, and rates of all OIs were highest in the stratum with 50 cells/microL or less.
: CD4 cell count declines were dependent on CD4 strata and can inform timing of clinic visits and treatment initiation in South Africa. Incidence rates of OIs suggest that targeted OI prophylaxis could prevent substantial HIV-related morbidity in South Africa.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy of isoniazid 300 mg daily for 6 months in the prevention of tuberculosis in HIV-1-infected adults and to determine whether tuberculosis preventive therapy prolongs survival in HIV-1-infected adults. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Six hundred and eighty-four HIV-1-infected adults. Development of tuberculosis and death. Three hundred and forty-two subjects received isoniazid and 342 received placebo. The median CD4 lymphocyte counts at enrolment were 322 and 346 x 10(6)/l in the isoniazid and placebo groups, respectively. The overall median follow-up from enrolment was 1.83 years (range, 0-3.4 years). The incidence of tuberculosis in the isoniazid group was 4.29 per 100 person-years (PY) of observation [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.78-6.33] and 3.86 per 100 PY of observation (95% CI, 2.45-5.79) in the placebo group, giving an adjusted rate ratio for isoniazid versus placebo of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.49-1.71). The adjusted rate ratio for tuberculosis for isoniazid versus placebo for tuberculin skin test (TST)-positive subjects was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.23-1.60) and for the TST-negative subjects, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.55-2.76). The overall adjusted mortality rate ratio for isoniazid versus placebo was 1.18 (95% CI, 0.79-1.75). Stratifying by TST reactivity gave an adjusted mortality rate ratio in those who were TST-positive of 0.33 (95% CI, 0.09-1.23) and for TST-negative subjects, 1.39 (95% CI, 0.90-2.12). Overall there was no statistically significant protective effect of daily isoniazid for 6 months in the prevention of tuberculosis. In the TST-positive subjects, where reactivation is likely to be the more important pathogenetic mechanism, there was some protection and some reduction in mortality, although this was not statistically significant. The small number of individuals in this subgroup made the power to detect a statistically significant difference in this subgroup low. Other influences that may have diluted the efficacy of isoniazid include a high rate of transmission of new infection and rapid progression to disease or insufficient duration of isoniazid in subjects with relatively advanced immunosuppression. The rate of drug resistance observed in subjects who received isoniazid and subsequently developed tuberculosis was low.AIDS 07/1997; 11(7):875-82. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HIV-related tuberculosis in a female cohort, and to investigate the relative importance of recently transmitted infection and reactivation in the pathogenesis of adult HIV-related tuberculosis. Members of an established cohort of female sex workers in Nairobi were enrolled in a prospective study. Women were followed up regularly and seen on demand when sick. Between October 1989 and September 1992 we followed 587 HIV-infected and 132 HIV-seronegative women. Standard protocols were used to investigate common presentations. Cases of tuberculosis were identified clinically or by culture. All available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains underwent DNA fingerprint analysis. Forty-nine incident and four recurrent episodes of tuberculosis were seen in HIV-infected women; no disease was seen in seronegative sex workers (P = 0.0003). The overall incidence rate of tuberculosis was 34.5 per 1000 person-years amongst HIV-infected participants. In purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test-positive women the rate was 66.7 per 1000 person-years versus 18.1 per 1000 person-years in PPD-negative women. Twenty incident cases (41%) were clinically compatible with primary disease. DNA fingerprint analysis of strains from 32 incident cases identified two clusters comprising two and nine patients; allowing for index cases, 10 patients (28%) may have had recently transmitted disease. Three out of 10 (30%) patients who were initially PPD skin test-negative became PPD-positive. Taken together, 26 incident cases (53%) may have been recently infected. DNA fingerprint analysis also identified two (50%) of the four recurrent tuberculosis episodes as reinfection. Substantial recent transmission of tuberculosis appears to be occurring in Nairobi amongst HIV-infected sex workers. It may be incorrect to assume in other regions of high tuberculosis transmission that active HIV-related tuberculosis usually represents reactivation of latent infection.AIDS 07/1997; 11(7):911-8. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy and tolerance of chemoprophylaxis with cotrimoxazole compared with placebo among HIV-1-infected adults. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in the urban community of Dakar, Senegal. Eligibility criteria were age greater than 15 years, HIV-1 or HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual seropositivity, CD4 cell count lower than 400 copies/mm3, no progressive infection, no previous history of intolerance to sulphonamide, lack of severe anemia or neutropenia, and renal or hepatic failure. Written informed consent was obtained. Recruited patients received 80 mg of trimethoprim and 400 mg of sulphamethoxazole daily or a matching placebo. The main outcomes were survival and the occurrence of clinical events defined as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, bacterial pneumonia, infectious enteritis, bacterial meningitis, urinary tract infection, bacterial otitis and sinusitis, and pyomyositis. Between September 1996 and March 1998, 297 patients were screened, and 100 were randomized in the study. Demographic, clinical, and biological characteristics of the two groups were similar as was the mean length of follow-up (7.7 months for the cotrimoxazole group vs. 8.0 months for the placebo group). There was no significant difference between the two groups in survival (hazard ratio = 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36-1.94) in the probability of severe event occurrence, defined as death or hospital admission (hazard ratio = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.57-2.13), or in the probability of clinical event occurrence (hazard ratio = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.55-2.59). Adjustment for initial CD4 cell count did not change these results. A low dose of cotrimoxazole was tolerated well clinically as well as biologically; only one treatment interruption occurred as the result of a moderate cutaneous eruption (grade 2). Our study does not show a beneficial effect of chemoprophylaxis with low-dose cotrimoxazole on survival or occurrence of opportunistic or nonopportunistic infections for HIV-1-infected patients in Dakar, Senegal.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 03/2001; 26(2):130-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor