Refinement of the Smith-Magenis syndrome critical region to approximately 950kb and assessment of 17p11.2 deletions. Are all deletions created equally?

Graduate Program in Genetics, Michigan State University, S-320 Plant Biology Building, 178 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.83). 07/2003; 79(2):134-41. DOI: 10.1016/S1096-7192(03)00048-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome associated with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. SMS is thought to be a contiguous gene syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of one or more genes in the associated deletion region. To date, no gene has been reported to contribute to the characteristics seen in the SMS phenotype. To expedite the search for the SMS causative genes, we have reduced the SMS critical region to approximately 950kb by analyzing 11 patient samples carrying 17p11.2 deletions. In addition, we have re-evaluated the frequency with which different 17p11.2 deletions naturally occur, showing evidence that homologous recombination likely takes place between low copy repeats at a higher frequency than previously reported.

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    ABSTRACT: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by craniofacial anomalies, neurological and behavioral disorders. SMS is caused by a deletion in region 17p11.2, which includes the RAI1 gene (90% of cases), or by point mutation in the RAI1 gene (10% of cases). Laboratory diagnosis is through cytogenetic analysis by GTG banding and molecular cytogenetic analysis by FISH. We carried out an active search for patients in Associations of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children (APAE) of São Paulo and genetic centers in Brazil. Forty-eight patients were screened for mental retardation, craniofacial abnormalities and stereotyped behavior with a diagnosis of SMS. In seven of them, chromosome banding at high resolution demonstrated chromosome 17p11.2 deletions, confirmed by FISH. We also made a meta-analysis of 165 cases reported between 1982 and 2010 to compare with the clinical data of our sample. We demonstrated differences between the frequencies of clinical signs among the cases reported and seven Brazilian cases of this study, such as dental anomalies, strabismus, ear infections, deep hoarse voice, hearing loss, and cardiac defects. Although the gold standard for diagnosis of SMS is FISH, we found that the GTG banding technique developed to evaluate chromosome 17 can be used for the SMS diagnosis in areas where the FISH technique is not available.
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    ABSTRACT: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder caused by haploinsufficiency of the retinoic acid-induced 1 (RAI1) gene on chromosome 17p11.2. Diagnostic strategies include molecular identification of a 17p11.2 microdeletion encompassing RAI1 or a mutation in RAI1. G-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are the classical methods used to detect the SMS deletions, while multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and real-time quantitative PCR are the newer, cost-effective, and high-throughput technologies. Most SMS features are due to RAI1 haploinsufficiency, while the variability and severity of the disorder are modified by other genes in the 17p11.2 region. The functional role for RAI1 is not completely understood, but it is likely involved in transcription, based on homology and preliminary studies. Management of SMS is primarily a multidisciplinary approach and involves treatment for sleep disturbance, speech and occupational therapies, minor medical interventions, and management of behaviors.
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    ABSTRACT: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) and duplication 17p11.2 (dup17p11.2) syndrome are multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation disorders resulting from either a deletion or duplication of the 17p11.2 region, respectively. The retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) gene is the causative gene for SMS and is included in the 17p11.2 region of dup17p11.2 syndrome. Currently SMS and dup17p11.2 syndrome are diagnosed using a combination of clinically recognized phenotypes and molecular cytogenetic analyses such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). However, these methods have proven to be highly expensive, time consuming, and dependent upon the low resolving capabilities of the assay. To address the need for improved diagnostic methods for SMS and dup17p11.2 syndrome, we designed a quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assay that measures RAI1 copy number using the comparative C(t) method, DeltaDeltaC(t). We tested our assay with samples blinded to their previous SMS or dup17p11.2 syndrome status. In all cases, we were able to determine RAI1 copy number status and render a correct diagnosis accordingly. We validated these results by both FISH and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). We conclude that Q-PCR is an accurate, reproducible, low-cost, and reliable assay that can be employed for routine use in SMS and dup17p11.2 diagnosis.
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