Response strength in multiple schedules.

Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (Impact Factor: 1.07). 06/1974; 21(3):389-408.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In several different experiments, pigeons were trained with one schedule or condition of food reinforcement for pecking in the presence of one key color, and a different schedule or condition in the presence of a second key color. After responding in both of these multiple schedule components stabilized, response-independent food was presented during dark-key periods between components, and the rates of pecking in both schedule components decreased. The decrease in responding relative to baseline depended on the frequency, magnitude, delay, or response-rate contingencies of reinforcement prevailing in that component. When reinforcement was terminated, decreases in responding relative to baseline rates were ordered in the same way as with response-independent food. The relations between component response rates were power functions. Internal consistencies in the data, in conjunction with parallel findings in the literature, suggest that the concept of response strength summarizes the effects of diverse procedures, where response strength is identified with relative resistance to change. The exponent of the power function relating response rates may provide the basis for scaling response strength.

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    ABSTRACT: Stimuli control of behavioral history was studied in a sample of four undergraduates who were first exposed to a multiple fixed-ratio (FR) – differential-reinforcement-of-low-rates (DRL) and then, to a multiple fixed-interval (FI) – FI. Three participants showed history effects (high and low response rates in the multiple FI components previously correlated with the FR and DRL) for no more than three sessions, and one participant during the entire test. For this participant, the stimuli correlated with the components of the multiple FI (color of the response button) were changed in 10 sessions, and his behavior became similar to that of the other three participants (no differentiation in response rates between components). These results suggest that human behavior tends to be controlled by current contingencies.
    Psicologia Reflexão e Crítica 12/2012; 26(2):357-366. · 0.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Stimuli paired with alcohol may evoke conditioned responses that influence consumption and relapse. Understanding extinction of conditioned responses for both alcohol and nonalcoholic reinforcers, and their relation to subsequent consumption, may be useful in identifying methods to maintain abstinence.Methods Nine baboons self-administered alcohol (n = 4) or a nonalcoholic reinforcer (orange-flavored Tang®, n = 5) under a 3-component chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR). Each component was associated with distinct stimuli and response requirements, which modeled periods of anticipation (Component 1), seeking (Component 2), and consumption (Component 3). No behavioral contingencies were in effect during Component 1. Responses in Component 2, required to gain access to Component 3, provided indices of seeking behavior. Alcohol or Tang® was available only in Component 3. Initial conditions parametrically manipulated the concentration of alcohol (2 to 6% w/v) or Tang (25 to 100%) that was available for self-administration. The breaking point (BP) of alcohol- and Tang-seeking responses at each of the concentrations was determined by adding a progressive ratio schedule to Component 2. Extinction of responding under stimulus conditions identical to those during baseline, but with no access to alcohol or Tang, was examined using across- and within-session extinction procedures.ResultsThe BP for 2% w/v alcohol was lower than that for 4 and 6%, which were closely similar. For Tang, BPs increased as the concentration increased. When concentrations of alcohol and Tang were adjusted to produce comparable BPs, self-administration of Tang was higher when compared to alcohol; however, alcohol-related cues maintained higher BPs than Tang-related cues when only water was available for self-administration. Alcohol seeking and self-administration responses were more resistant to extinction than those for Tang.Conclusions Stimuli paired with alcohol or nonalcoholic reinforcers will gain different motivational properties. Alcohol-related stimuli produced persistent responding that was highly resistant to change, highlighting the role of environmental stimuli in compulsive drinking and relapse.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 10/2014; · 3.42 Impact Factor


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