Article

Response strength in multiple schedules.

Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (Impact Factor: 1.07). 06/1974; 21(3):389-408.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In several different experiments, pigeons were trained with one schedule or condition of food reinforcement for pecking in the presence of one key color, and a different schedule or condition in the presence of a second key color. After responding in both of these multiple schedule components stabilized, response-independent food was presented during dark-key periods between components, and the rates of pecking in both schedule components decreased. The decrease in responding relative to baseline depended on the frequency, magnitude, delay, or response-rate contingencies of reinforcement prevailing in that component. When reinforcement was terminated, decreases in responding relative to baseline rates were ordered in the same way as with response-independent food. The relations between component response rates were power functions. Internal consistencies in the data, in conjunction with parallel findings in the literature, suggest that the concept of response strength summarizes the effects of diverse procedures, where response strength is identified with relative resistance to change. The exponent of the power function relating response rates may provide the basis for scaling response strength.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
54 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present experiment investigated the effects of reinforcer magnitude on resistance to disruption of remembering and response rates. Pigeons were exposed to a variable-interval (VI), delayed-matching-to-sample (DMTS) procedure with two components (rich and lean, distinguished by differing discriminative stimuli and hopper presentation duration). Completion of a VI 20 s schedule resulted in DMTS trials. In a DMTS trial, a choice of one of two comparison stimuli resulted in food if the choice matched the color of the previously presented sample stimulus. Separable aspects of the forgetting functions (initial discrimination and rate of forgetting) were examined by determining accuracy across a range of delays. Response rates and accuracy were higher in the rich relative to the lean component during baseline, and were more persistent during disruptors (extinction and prefeeding). During DMTS trials, extinction decreased initial discrimination more in the lean than the rich component, but had no systematic effect on rate of forgetting. During prefeeding, the rate of forgetting increased more in the lean than the rich component, but initial discrimination was not systematically affected. These results show persistence of response rates and remembering are positively related to reinforcer magnitude. The type of disruptor also influences the way in which remembering is disrupted.
    Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 04/2014; · 1.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to assess stimulus control and generalization of remote behavioral history effects with humans. Undergraduates first responded frequently under a fixed-ratio (FR) schedule in the presence of one line length (16 mm or 31 mm) and infrequently on a tandem FR 1 differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedule when a second line length (31 mm or 16 mm) was present. Next, an FR 1 schedule in effect in the presence of either stimulus produced comparable response rates between the stimuli. Finally, a tandem FR 1 fixed-interval (FI) schedule was in effect under those same stimuli (Experiment 1) or under 12 line lengths ranging from 7 to 40 mm (Experiment 2). In both experiments, responses under the tandem FR 1 FI schedule were frequent in the presence of stimuli previously correlated with the FR schedule and infrequent in the presence of stimuli previously correlated with the tandem FR 1 DRL schedule. Short-lived but systematic generalization gradients were obtained in Experiment 2. These results show that previously established rates of behavior that disappear when the establishing contingencies are changed can subsequently not only reappear when the contingencies change, but are controlled by and generalize across antecedent stimuli.
    Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 01/2014; · 1.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pausing within multiple fixed-ratio schedules differing in reinforcer magnitude is jointly controlled by both past and upcoming conditions of reinforcement. Abrupt shifts from a just-received large reinforcer to a signaled upcoming small reinforcer (i.e., a negative incentive shift) produce marked disruptions in responding, as indexed by extended pausing. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if reducing the level of food deprivation via prefeeding enhanced these disruptive effects. Five Long Evans rats lever-pressed according to a fixed-ratio schedule. Half of the components ended in a relatively large reinforcer (three 45-mg food pellets) and half ended in a relatively small reinforcer (one pellet). Components alternated irregularly, yielding four transitions between reinforcers: small-small, small-large, large-small (the negative incentive shift), and large-large. During five, 1-session prefeeding probes, rats were given 12 g of food in their home cages 1h prior to the start of the session. Under steady-state conditions, negative incentive shifts engendered the longest pausing. Prefeeding produced large absolute and relative increases in pausing during negative incentive shifts, and small increases in pausing in the other transitions. The results are interpreted within a resistance to change framework.
    Behavioural processes 01/2011; 86(1):156-9. · 1.53 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
0 Downloads
Available from