The DHR96 nuclear receptor regulates xenobiotic responses in Drosophila.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, 15 N 2030 E 5100, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.
Cell Metabolism (Impact Factor: 14.62). 08/2006; 4(1):37-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2006.06.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Exposure to xenobiotics such as plant toxins, pollutants, or prescription drugs triggers a defense response, inducing genes that encode key detoxification enzymes. Although xenobiotic responses have been studied in vertebrates, little effort has been made to exploit a simple genetic system for characterizing the molecular basis of this coordinated transcriptional response. We show here that approximately 1000 transcripts are significantly affected by phenobarbital treatment in Drosophila. We also demonstrate that the Drosophila ortholog of the human SXR and CAR xenobiotic receptors, DHR96, plays a role in this response. A DHR96 null mutant displays increased sensitivity to the sedative effects of phenobarbital and the pesticide DDT as well as defects in the expression of many phenobarbital-regulated genes. Metabolic and stress-response genes are also controlled by DHR96, implicating its role in coordinating multiple response pathways. This work establishes a new model system for defining the genetic control of xenobiotic stress responses.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nuclear receptors are a superfamily of transcription factors important in key biological, developmental and reproductive processes. Several of these receptors are ligand- activated and through their ability to bind endogenous and exogenous ligands, are potentially vulnerable to xenobiotics. Molluscs are key ecological species in defining aquatic and terrestrial habitats and are sensitive to xenobiotic compounds in the environment. However, the understanding of nuclear receptor presence, function and xenobiotic disruption in the phylum Mollusca is limited.
    BMC genomics. 05/2014; 15(1):369.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spodoptera frugiperda is a polyphagous lepidopteran pest that encounters a wide range of toxic plant metabolites in its diet. The ability of this insect to adapt to its chemical environment might be explained by the action of major detoxification enzymes such as cytochrome P450s (or CYP). Forty-two sequences coding for P450s were identified and most of the transcripts were found to be expressed in the midgut, Malpighian tubules and fat body of S. frugiperda larvae. Relatively few P450s were expressed in the established cell line Sf9. In order to gain information on how these genes respond to different chemical compounds, larvae and Sf9 cells were exposed to plant secondary metabolites (indole, indole-3-carbinol, quercetin, 2-tridecanone and xanthotoxin), insecticides (deltamethrin, fipronil, methoprene, methoxyfenozide) or model inducers (clofibrate and phenobarbital). Several genes were induced by plant chemicals such as P450s from the 6B, 321A and 9A subfamilies. Only a few genes responded to insecticides, belonging principally to the CYP9A family. There was little overlap between the response in vivo measured in the midgut and the response in vitro in Sf9 cells. In addition, regulatory elements were detected in the promoter region of these genes. In conclusion, several P450s were identified that could potentially be involved in the adaptation of S. frugiperda to its chemical environment.
    Insect Molecular Biology 10/2014; · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As social insects, termites live in densely populated colonies with specialized castes under conditions conducive to microbial growth and transmission. Furthermore, termites are exposed to xenobiotics in soil and their lignocellulose diet. Therefore, termites are valuable models for studying gene expression involved in response to septic injury, immunity and detoxification in relation to caste membership. In this study, workers and soldiers of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, were challenged by bacterial injection or by no-choice feeding with a sublethal concentration (0.5%) of phenobarbital. Constitutive and induced expression of six putative immune response genes (two encoding for lectin-like proteins, one for a ficolin-precursor, one for the Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, one for a chitin binding protein, and one for the gram-negative binding protein 2) and four putative detoxification genes (two encoding for cytochrome P450s, one for glutathione S-transferase, and one for the multi antimicrobial extrusion protein), were measured via quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and compared within and among 1) colonies, 2) treatment types and 3) castes via ANOVA. Eight genes were inducible by septic injury, feeding with phenobarbital or both. Colony origin had no effect on inducibility or differential gene expression. However, treatment type showed significant effects on the expression of the eight inducible genes. Caste effects on expression levels were significant in five of the eight inducible genes with constitutive and induced expression of most target genes being higher in workers than in soldiers.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e105582. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 26, 2014