Article

The DHR96 nuclear receptor regulates xenobiotic responses in Drosophila.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, 15 N 2030 E 5100, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.
Cell Metabolism (Impact Factor: 16.75). 08/2006; 4(1):37-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2006.06.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Exposure to xenobiotics such as plant toxins, pollutants, or prescription drugs triggers a defense response, inducing genes that encode key detoxification enzymes. Although xenobiotic responses have been studied in vertebrates, little effort has been made to exploit a simple genetic system for characterizing the molecular basis of this coordinated transcriptional response. We show here that approximately 1000 transcripts are significantly affected by phenobarbital treatment in Drosophila. We also demonstrate that the Drosophila ortholog of the human SXR and CAR xenobiotic receptors, DHR96, plays a role in this response. A DHR96 null mutant displays increased sensitivity to the sedative effects of phenobarbital and the pesticide DDT as well as defects in the expression of many phenobarbital-regulated genes. Metabolic and stress-response genes are also controlled by DHR96, implicating its role in coordinating multiple response pathways. This work establishes a new model system for defining the genetic control of xenobiotic stress responses.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
101 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of only two unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans, and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. We hypothesized that as a key fatty acid, AA may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with AA indicate that it alters female/male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted P. subcapitata diet. Next, we tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (C. vulgaris) with AA enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. AA enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0 and 4.0 μM by 30-40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that AA is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, our data indicates that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of AA needed for reproduction. Diet switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some but not all of AA's effects when compared to a C. vulgaris only diet, suggesting that some AA provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, AA supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in AA may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist, pyriproxyfen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 11/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Developing high-throughput assays to screen marine extracts for bioactive compounds presents both conceptual and technical challenges. One major challenge is to develop assays that have well-grounded ecological and evolutionary rationales. In this review we propose that a specific group of ligand-activated transcription factors are particularly well-suited to act as sensors in such bioassays. More specifically, xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (XANRs) regulate transcription of genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. XANR ligand-binding domains (LBDs) may adaptively evolve to bind those bioactive, and potentially toxic, compounds to which organisms are normally exposed to through their specific diets. A brief overview of the function and taxonomic distribution of both vertebrate and invertebrate XANRs is first provided. Proof-of-concept experiments are then described which confirm that a filter-feeding marine invertebrate XANR LBD is activated by marine bioactive compounds. We speculate that increasing access to marine invertebrate genome sequence data, in combination with the expression of functional recombinant marine invertebrate XANR LBDs, will facilitate the generation of high-throughput bioassays/biosensors of widely differing specificities, but all based on activation of XANR LBDs. Such assays may find application in screening marine extracts for bioactive compounds that could act as drug lead compounds.
    Marine Drugs 11/2014; 12(11):5590-5618. · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While much recent research has expanded our understanding of the molecular interactions between aphids and their host plants, it is lacking for the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. Since its North American invasion, A. glycines has become one of the most damaging insect pests on this important crop. Five soybean genes for host plant resistance to A. glycines have been identified, but populations of A. glycines have already adapted to overcome these resistance genes. Understanding the molecular interactions between resistant soybean and A. glycines can provide clues to its adaptation mechanisms. Here, we used RNA-Sequencing to compare and contrast A. glycines gene expression when fed resistant (Rag1) and susceptible soybean.
    BMC Genomics 11/2014; 15(1):972. · 4.04 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
43 Downloads
Available from
May 26, 2014