Functional Adaptation Skills Training (FAST): A randomized trial of a psychosocial intervention for middle-aged and older patients with chronic psychotic disorders
ABSTRACT Behavioral interventions designed to improve functioning of older patients with schizophrenia and other chronic psychotic disorders have the potential to significantly increase patients' independence and quality of life. This study evaluated a psychosocial intervention designed to improve everyday living skills of middle-aged and older outpatients with chronic psychotic disorders.
A total of 240 patients with a DSM-IV-based chart diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in a 24-week, randomized controlled trial comparing a behavioral group intervention called "Functional Adaptations and Skills Training" (FAST; n=124) to a time-equivalent attention-control (AC; n=116) group focused on improving functional skills.
Compared to participants randomized to AC, those in the FAST intervention demonstrated significant improvement in everyday living skills (p=.046) and social skills (p=.003), but not medication management skills (p=.268).
Results suggest that middle-aged and older patients with psychotic disorders may benefit from participation in interventions designed specifically to improve functional skills.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Skill building for adults involves multiple approaches to address the complex problems related to serious mental illness. Individuals with schizophrenia are often the research focus. The authors outline key skill-building approaches and describe their evidence base. METHODS Authors searched meta-analyses, research reviews, and individual studies from 1995 through March 2013. Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, ERIC, and CINAHL. Authors chose from three levels of evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for the number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of service effectiveness. RESULTS Over 100 randomized controlled trials and numerous quasi-experimental studies support rating the level of evidence as high. Outcomes indicate strong effectiveness for social skills training, social cognitive training, and cognitive remediation, especially if these interventions are delivered through integrated approaches, such as Integrated Psychological Therapy. Results are somewhat mixed for life skills training (when studied alone) and cognitive-behavioral approaches. The complexities of schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses call for individually tailored, multimodal skill-building approaches in combination with other treatments. CONCLUSIONS Skill building should be a foundation for rehabilitation services covered by comprehensive benefit plans that attend to the need for service packages with multiple components delivered in various combinations. Further research should demonstrate more conclusively the long-term effectiveness of skill building in real-life situations, alone and in various treatment combinations. Studies of diverse subpopulations are also needed.Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 04/2014; 65(6). DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.201300251 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nonadherence to treatment is a major challenge in all fields of medicine, and it has been claimed that increasing the effectiveness of adherence interventions may have far greater impact on the health of the population than any improvement in specific medical treatments. However, despite widespread use of terms such as adherence and compliance, there is little agreement on definitions or measurements. Nonadherence can be intermittent or continuous, voluntary or involuntary, and may be specific to single or multiple interventions, which makes reliable measurement problematic. Both direct and indirect methods of assessment have their limitations. The current literature focuses mainly on psychotic disorders. A large number of trials of various psychological, social, and pharmacologic interventions has been reported. The results are mixed, but interventions specifically designed to improve adherence with a more intensive and focused approach and interventions combining elements from different approaches such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, family-based, and community-based approaches have shown better outcomes. Pharmacologic interventions include careful drug selection, switching when a treatment is not working, dose adjustment, simplifying the treatment regimen, and the use of long-acting injections. The results for the most studied pharmacologic intervention, ie, long-acting injections, are far from clear, and there are discrepancies between randomized controlled trials, nationwide cohort studies, and mirror-image studies. Nonadherence with treatment is often paid far less attention in routine clinical practice and psychiatric training. Strategies to measure and improve adherence in clinical practice are based more on personal experience than on research evidence. This overview focuses on strategies used for improving treatment adherence in psychiatric disorders in the light of current evidence, with emphasis on public health aspects of treatment adherence and the management of nonadherence in routine clinical practice.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 06/2014; 10:1069-1077. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S40777 · 2.00 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: The UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment Brief (the UPSA-B) has been widely used for evaluating functional capacity in patients with schizophrenia. The utility of the battery in a wide range of cultural contexts has been of concern among developers. The current study investigated the validity of the Japanese version of the UPSA-B as a measure of functional capacity and as a co-primary for neurocognion. Sixty-four Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 83 healthy adults entered the study. The Japanese version of the UPSA-B (UPSA-B Japanese version) and the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery Japanese version (MCCB Japanese version) were administered. Normal controls performed significantly better than patients, with large effect sizes for the Total and the subscale scores of the UPSA-B. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the optimal cut-off point for the UPSA-B Total score was estimated at around 80. The UPSA-B Total score was significantly correlated with the MCCB Composite score and several domain scores, indicating the relationship between this co-primary measure and overall cognitive functioning in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. The results obtained here suggest that the UPSA-B Japanese version is an effective tool for evaluating disturbances of daily-living skills linked to cognitive functioning in schizophrenia, providing an identifiable cut-off point and relationships to neurocognition. Further research is warranted to evaluate the psychometrical properties and response to treatment of the Japanese version of the UPSA-B.09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.scog.2014.08.002