Efficacy of telephone Counseling for pregnant smokers - A randomized controlled trial
ABSTRACT Reducing tobacco use in pregnancy is a public health priority. Brief smoking counseling during prenatal care is effective but generates modest cessation rates. Telephone counseling is an effective smoking cessation method that could offer pregnant women convenient access to more intensive smoking cessation counseling.
The efficacy of proactive pregnancy-tailored telephone counseling for smoking cessation was compared with a "best-practice" brief-counseling control in a randomized controlled trial of 442 pregnant smokers referred by prenatal providers and a managed care plan. Trained counselors using cognitive-behavioral and motivational interviewing methods called intervention subjects throughout pregnancy and for 2 months postpartum (mean = 5 calls, mean total contact = 68 minutes). Controls received one 5-minute counseling call.
Cotinine-validated 7-day tobacco abstinence rates in intervention and control groups were 10.0% and 7.5% at end of pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-2.70; number needed to treat = 40) and 6.7% versus 7.1% at 3 months postpartum (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.44-1.99). The intervention increased end-of-pregnancy cessation rates among 201 light smokers (< 10 cigarettes/day at study enrollment) (intervention 19.1% versus control 8.4%; OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.1-6.1; number needed to treat = 9.3) and among 193 smokers who attempted to quit in pregnancy before enrollment (intervention 18.1% versus control 6.8%; OR 3.02, CI 1.15-7.94; number needed to treat = 8.8); 63% of the sample (n = 267) was in one of these subgroups.
Proactive pregnancy-tailored telephone counseling did not outperform a brief "best practice" intervention among pregnant smokers. The intervention had efficacy in light smokers and in women who had attempted cessation earlier in pregnancy. Future studies should confirm whether telephone counseling benefits these groups of pregnant smokers.
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ABSTRACT: Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy.Maternal and Child Health Journal 05/2014; 19(1). DOI:10.1007/s10995-014-1505-0 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Implementing and evaluating smoking cessation interventions in underserved populations has been found difficult due to high rates of non-adherence to the prescribed protocol. To understand better the barriers to cessation participation, we studied low-income inner-city pregnant women who were enrolled in either a standard or highly intensive quit smoking counseling program. The results showed that 1) in the prenatal phase, non-attendance was predicted by a greater number of cigarettes smoked per day; 2) in the postpartum follow-up phase, non-attendance was predicted by lower educational level and higher self-efficacy for quitting smoking; and 3) participants with more children living at home were at increased risk of rescheduling the postpartum follow-up session. These findings suggest that innovative delivery strategies are needed more effectively to assess and address risk factors for non-adherence to smoking cessation trials among underserved minority pregnant/postpartum smokers.Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 01/2012; 23(3):1222-38. DOI:10.1353/hpu.2012.0096 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background To facilitate translation of evidence into clinical practice, it is critical that clear, specific, and detailed information about interventions is provided in publications to promote replication, appropriate aggregation in meta-analysis, and implementation. This study examined whether twenty elements of interventions deemed essential for such translational application were reported in sufficient detail in smoking cessation trials with pregnant women.Methods Searches of electronic databases using MeSH terms and keywords identified peer-reviewed English language studies published between 2001 and 2012. Eligible studies reported a smoking cessation intervention targeted at pregnant women and met Cochrane¿s Effective Practice and Organization of Care group study design criteria. Each intervention arm of eligible studies was assessed against the developed twenty criteria.ResultsThirty relevant studies reported the findings of 45 intervention arms. The mode of delivery of the intervention was reported in 100% of intervention arms. Other well-reported criteria included reporting of the provider who delivered the intervention (96%), sample characteristics (80%), and the intervention setting (80%). Criteria not reported adequately included care provided to women who relapse (96% not reported), details about training given to providers (77% not reported), and the method of quit advice advised (76% not reported). No studies reported 100% of relevant criteria.Conclusions Current standards of reporting of intervention content and implementation are suboptimal. The use of smoking cessation specific checklists for reporting of trials, standard reporting using behaviour change taxonomies, and the publication of protocols as supplements should be considered as ways of improving the specificity of reporting.Implementation Science 08/2014; 9(1):94. DOI:10.1186/s13012-014-0094-z · 3.47 Impact Factor