Isoprostane-induced airway hyperresponsiveness is dependent on internal Ca2+ handling and Rho/ROCK signaling.
ABSTRACT We previously reported the ability of isoprostanes to induce airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In this study, we examined the signaling mechanisms underlying that phenomenon with the standard muscle bath technique. Responses to a threshold concentration of carbachol (CCh, 3 x 10(-9) M) were significantly augmented by pretreatment for 20 min with 8-isoprostaglandin E(2) (15-E(2t)-IsoP, 10(-6) M): this AHR was obliterated in tissues pretreated with the selective Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 added 20 min before isoprostane, but not by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Increasing the CCh concentration to 3 x 10(-8) M (still considerably less than the half-maximally effective concentration of CCh) evoked larger contractions that were also augmented significantly by 15-E(2t)-IsoP: this AHR was completely abolished in tissues pretreated with CPA as well as those pretreated with Y-27632. We noted, however, that Y-27632 and CPA profoundly effect baseline tone and the cholinergic response per se, which confounds the interpretation of the data summarized above. We therefore modified the protocol by using combinations of CCh and blocker (CPA, Y-27632, or nifedipine) that were equieffective. In this way, we found that AHR could not be demonstrated under conditions in which Rho/ROCK signaling or Ca(2+) release was abolished (by Y-27632 and CPA, respectively). Likewise, other autacoids that act through G protein-coupled receptors via Rho/ROCK and Ca(2+) release (serotonin, histamine) mimicked this effect of isoprostane, whereas bradykinin did not. We conclude that isoprostane-induced AHR is mediated in part through an action on Rho/ROCK signaling. This novel finding may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AHR and asthma.
Article: Acute exercise decreases airway inflammation, but not responsiveness, in an allergic asthma model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that the asthmatic responses of airway inflammation, remodeling, and hyperresponsiveness (AHR) are interrelated; in this study, we used exercise to examine the nature of this interrelationship. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA); mice were then exercised via running on a motorized treadmill at a moderate intensity. Data indicate that, within the lungs of OVA-treated mice, exercise attenuated the production of inflammatory mediators, including chemokines KC, RANTES, and MCP-1 and IL-12p40/p80. Coordinately, OVA-treated and exercised mice displayed decreases in leukocyte infiltration, including eosinophils, as compared with sedentary controls. Results also show that a single bout of exercise significantly decreased phosphorylation of the NFkappaB p65 subunit, which regulates the gene expression of a wide variety of inflammatory mediators. In addition, OVA-treated and exercised mice exhibited decreases in the levels of Th2-derived cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 and the prostaglandin PGE(2), as compared with sedentary controls. In contrast, results show that a single bout of exercise had no effect on AHR in OVA-treated mice challenged with increasing doses of aerosolized methacholine (0-50 mg/ml) as compared with sedentary mice. Exercise also had no effect on epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus production, or airway wall thickening in OVA-treated mice as compared with sedentary controls. These findings suggest that a single bout of aerobic exercise at a moderate intensity attenuates airway inflammation but not AHR or airway remodeling in OVA-treated mice. The implication of these findings for the interrelationship between airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and AHR is discussed.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 01/2009; 40(1):83-9. · 5.13 Impact Factor