Role of renal nerves and salt intake on erythropoietin secretion in rats following carbon monoxide exposure.
ABSTRACT Because the data from the literature contain conflicting results regarding the role of renal nerves and angiotensin II in hypoxia-induced erythropoietin (EPO) secretion, we evaluated the effect of renal nerves and salt intake in rats on EPO secretion stimulated by carbon monoxide (CO). Serum levels and renal mRNA content of EPO were similarly elevated by exposure to different CO concentrations in a dose-dependent manner in rats with bilateral renal denervation (DNX) and in sham-denervated controls (INN). However, at 600 ppm CO, serum concentrations and mRNA of EPO were significantly higher in DNX compared with INN rats (p < 0.05). This increase of EPO secretion in DNX rats could be blocked by administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) (p < 0.05), whereas the NPY receptor antagonist did not enhance EPO secretion in INN rats after CO exposure. Agonists and antagonists of beta-adrenergic receptors had no effect on EPO secretion. High-salt (HS) diet reduced EPO secretory response at 600 ppm CO by 55% compared with INN rats on normal salt diet (p < 0.01). In addition, DNX increased EPO secretion in rats on low-salt and HS diet, whereas plasma renin activity did not correlate with EPO levels under these experimental conditions. In summary, our data suggest that renal nerves contribute to the half-maximal EPO secretory response to CO exposure, possibly via NPY receptors.
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ABSTRACT: Tissue hypoxia induces a variety of functional changes including enhanced transcriptional activity associated with high transmethylation activity (e.g. mRNA cap methylation) in the nucleus. It is well known that the kidney responds to hypoxia with enhanced transcription of erythropoietin (EPO) in the interstitial cells. Since S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy)-hydrolase regulates most S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) dependent transmethylation reactions by hydrolyzing the potent feedback inhibitor AdoHcy to adenosine and homocysteine we studied the effect of hypoxia by carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation (1200 ppm) on AdoHcy-hydrolase gene expression and its localization in rat kidneys. CO lowered renal AdoHcy-hydrolase mRNA expression by 64% whereas AdoHcy-hydrolase activity was not changed during 4h of CO exposure 0.7+/-0.04 mU/mg (control) vs. 0.75+/-0.06 mU/mg protein. Using two-channel immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscope AdoHcy-hydrolase was visualized in different cells of the hypoxic rat kidney. A very bright immunofluorescence of AdoHcy-hydrolase was observed in the nuclei of single interstitial cells of renal cortex and outer medulla which respond to hypoxia with increased EPO secretion indicating translocation of AdoHcy-hydrolase from the cytosol to the nucleus. These data suggest that AdoHcy-hydrolase accumulation in the nucleus of adult mammalian cells is involved in maintaining efficient transmethylation reactions in transcriptionally active cells by removing the product inhibitor AdoHcy.Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 02/2007; 19(1-4):57-66. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have yielded conflicting results as to whether extracellular adenosine generation and signaling contributes to hypoxia-induced increases in renal erythropoietin (EPO) secretion. In this study, we combined pharmacological and genetic approaches to elucidate a potential contribution of extracellular adenosine to renal EPO release in mice. To stimulate EPO secretion, we used murine carbon monoxide exposure (400 and 750 parts per million CO, 4 h), ambient hypoxia (8% oxygen, 4 h), or arterial hemodilution. Because the ecto-5-nucleotidase (CD73, conversion of AMP to adenosine) is considered the pacemaker of extracellular adenosine generation, we first tested the effect of blocking extracellular adenosine generation with the specific CD73-inhibitor adenosine 5'-(alpha,beta-methylene) diphosphate (APCP) or by gene-targeted deletion of cd73. These studies showed that neither APCP-treatment nor targeted deletion of cd73 resulted in changes of stimulated EPO mRNA or serum levels, although the increases of adenosine levels in the kidney following CO exposure were attenuated in mice with APCP treatment or in cd73(-/-) mice. Moreover, pharmacological studies using specific inhibitors of individual adenosine receptors (A1 AR, DPCPX; A 2A AR, DMPX; A 2B AR, PSB 1115; A3AR, MRS 1191) showed no effect on stimulated increases of EPO mRNA or serum levels. Finally, stimulated EPO secretion was not attenuated in gene-targeted mice lacking A1A(-/-, A2A AR-/-, A2BAR(-/-), or A3AR-/-. Together, these studies combine genetic and pharmacological in vivo evidence that increases of EPO secretion during limited oxygen availability are not affected by extracellular adenosine generation or signaling.American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 12/2007; 293(5):F1501-11. · 3.61 Impact Factor