Effect of aqua exercise on recovery of lower limb muscles after downhill running

School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, Chiba, Japan.
Journal of Sports Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.25). 09/2006; 24(8):835-42. DOI: 10.1080/02640410500141737
Source: PubMed


The aim of the present study was to examine how the recovery of physiological functioning of the leg muscles after high-intensity eccentric exercise such as downhill running could be promoted by aqua exercise for a period until the damaged muscle had recovered almost completely. Ten male long-distance runners were divided equally into an aqua exercise group and a control group. From the first day (Day 0) to the fourth day (Day 3), the participants completed a questionnaire on muscle soreness, and serum creatine kinase activity, muscle power, flexibility, whole-body reaction time and muscle stiffness were measured. After measurements on Day 0, the participants performed downhill running (three 5 min runs with a 5 min rest interval at -10%, 335.7 +/- 6.1 m . min-1). The aqua exercise group performed walking, jogging and jumping in water on three successive days following the downhill running on Day 0 for 30 min each day. Muscle power was reduced on Day 1 in the control group (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness in the calf on Day 3 was greater in the control group than that in the aqua exercise group (P < 0.05). In the aqua exercise group, muscle stiffness in the calf was less than that in the control group over 4 days (time main effect: P < 0.05; group x time interaction: P < 0.05). We conclude that aqua exercise promoted physiological functioning of the muscles in the legs after high-intensity downhill running for a period until the damaged muscles had recovered almost completely.

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    • "To our knowledge, only two studies investigated the preventive effect of the warm-up or cool-down in leg muscles, and only one of these studies looked at the warm-up and cooldown within the same study. Takahashi et al. (2006) investigated the effect of cool-down exercise (aqua exercise) after downhill running and found some significant effects, while Law and Herbert (2007) investigated the effect of 10 min uphill walking before (warm-up) and after (cooldown ) walking backwards downhill on an inclined treadmill for 30 min and found some positive effect of the warm-up. Although these two studies investigated DOMS in the large muscle mass of the legs, the exercise intensity used for both warm-up and cool-down exercise was very low (i.e., 3.1-3.4 "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of warm-up and cool-down exercise on delayed onset of muscle soreness at the distal and central parts of rectus femoris following leg resistance exercise. Thirty-six volunteers (21 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the warm-up (20 min ergometer cycling prior to the resistance exercise), cool-down (20 min cycling after the resistance exercise), or control group performing resistance exercise only. The resistance exercise consisted of front lunges (10×5 repetitions/sets) with external loading of 40% (women) and 50% (men) of body mass. Primary outcomes were pressure pain threshold along rectus femoris and maximal isometric knee extension force. Data were recorded before the resistance exercise and on the two consecutive days. Pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced for the control group on both day 2 and 3 (p≤0.003) but not for the warm-up group (p≥0.21). For the cool-down group, pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced on day 2 (p≤0.005) and was also lower compared to the warm-up group (p=0.025). Force was significantly reduced on day 2 and 3 for all groups (p<0.001). This study indicates that aerobic warm-up exercise performed prior to resistance exercise may prevent muscle soreness at the central but not distal muscle regions, but it does not prevent loss of muscle force.
    Journal of Human Kinetics 12/2012; 35(1):59-68. DOI:10.2478/v10078-012-0079-4 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    • "or thirty minutes for three days following the downhill run ; while the control group rested passively . Results showed that aqua exercise facilitated the recovery of physiological functioning of the leg muscles . Muscle power , muscle stiffness , and muscle soreness all showed quicker recovery in the aqua exercise group versus the control group ( Takahashi et al . 2006 ) . However , due to the small number of subjects and above average training status , these results cannot be applied to a normal population . Similarly , Reilly and colleagues ( 2002 ) found that deep - water running was an effective method of reducing muscle soreness and restoring muscle strength following plyometric exercise in 30 un"
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    ABSTRACT: 24, 48, and 72 hours following a 45 minute downhill run. Isokinetic strength, creatine kinase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, muscle soreness and mood states were assessed at baseline, 15 minutes, 3, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post-exercise. Significant time effects were observed for isokinetic knee flexion/extension at 60 and 180°/second, muscle soreness (p<0.05), muscle soreness (p<0.001) and POMS (p=0.013). A significant group by time interaction (p=0.027) was observed for POMS. The G-Trainer treadmill was unable to enhance muscle recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage.
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    ABSTRACT: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Post-exercise recovery has become an important area in research due to the high demands placed on competitive athletes. Different recovery strategies are used by athletes during competition and training. For the competitive athlete it is important to maintain performances during competition and also to enhance performances during training. However, if the athlete fails to recovery from daily exhaustive training and competition, inadequate recovery may lead to poor performances, burn-out, sickness and even injuries. There is very little evidence available on the possible performance recovery effects of the use of water immersion during multi days of intensive endurance training. Theoretically, water immersion should aid the overall recovery process without any additional energy cost involved as with active recovery. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether water immersion (cold water vs. neutral) has any effects on the post-exercise recovery rate of competitive cyclists during 3 days of intensive endurance training and whether recovery with water immersion is more effective than active recovery. Seventeen competitive cyclists (mean ± SD age: 27.6 ± 5.94 years, weight: 78.8 ± 6.67 kg, height: 180.5 ± 4.42 cm VO2max: 49.8 ± 4.13, and PPO: 352.6 ± 35.94 Watts) completed 3 days of intensive endurance cycling sessions. Cyclists were randomly assigned to either a 20 minute ice bath (IB) (n = 6, 11 ± 0.9oC), neutral bath (NB) (n = 6, 30 ± 0.6oC), or active recovery (AR) (n = 5; 81 ± 1.74% of HRLT ) which were performed directly after the training sessions on Day 1 and 2. Dependent variables such as anaerobic performance, creatine kinase concentrations (CK), c-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), blood lactate concentrations, muscle soreness (VAS) and perceived fatigue (POMS), and limb circumferences were measured prior to the training sessions at Day 1, 2 and 3. In addition, changes in exercise performances over the last 2 days were also assessed. There were significant increases over the three days in plasma [CK] (P < 0.05) and [CRP] (P < 0.001) demonstrating that muscle damage and inflammation occurred during and after the training sessions. However, there were no treatment or interaction effects observed for any of the dependent variables for any of the recovery interventions (P > 0.05). Blood [La] was significantly reduced on Day 2 for the IB group in comparison to the NB group (P < 0.05). A strong tendency was observed for [CK] when the IB and NB groups were combined (WG), indicating that AR had a strong tendency to enhance the recovery of [CK] in comparison to the WG (P = 0.05). Also, there were no significant time or interaction effects observed in % changes in performances for the last two 100km TTs between Day 2 and 3 for any of the recovery interventions (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that neither cold water, nor neutral water therapy, have more beneficial effects on post-exercise recovery rates compared to active recovery. Importantly, however, is that the cyclists’ were able to maintain their performances over the three consecutive days, indicating that water therapy per se is not detrimental to endurance performance. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Na-oefening herstel het ‘n belangrike area van navorsing geword, aangesien die eise wat aan elite atlete gestel word buitengewoon hoog is. Vir die kompeterende fietsryer is dit baie belangrik om prestasie tydens kompetitisie asook tydens inoefening te handhaaf. Inteendeel, as die atleet nie daarin slaag om effektief te herstel na daaglikse oefening en kompetisie nie, mag dit lei tot swak prestasie, uitbranding, siekte en beserings. Tot hede is daar geen baie min bewyse beskikbaar oor die potensiële voordele van waterterapie vir die herstel van atlete, veral tydens meervoudige dae van intensiewe uithouvermoë inoefening. Teoreties behoort waterterapie die algehele herstelproses bevorder sonder dat enige addisionele energiekostes betrokke is, soos in die geval van aktiewe herstel. Die doel van die ondersoek was om vas te stel of waterterapie (koud teenoor neutraal) enige effekte het op die na-oefening hersteltempo van kompeterende fietsryers tydens 3 dae van intensiewe uithouvermo oefening en om te bepaal of waterterapie meer effektief is as aktiewe herstel. Sewentien kompeterende fietsryers (gemiddeld ± SD; ouderdom: 27.6 ± 5.94 jaar, gewig: 78.8 ± 6.67 kg, lengte: 180.5 ± 4.42 cm, VO2maks: 49.8 ± 4.13, en Piek krag uitset: 352.6 ± 35.94 Watts) het 3 dae van intensiewe uithouvermoë inoefeing voltooi. Die fietryers was lukraak ingedeel in ‘n 20 minute Ysbadgroep (IB) (n = 6, 11 ± 0.9oC), neutrale bad groep (NB) (n = 6, 30 ± 0.6oC) en ‘n aktiewe herstelgroep (AR) (n = 5; 81 ± 1.74% van HRLT), Herstelsessies het op Dag 1 en 2 direk na die inoefeningsessies plaasgevind. Afhanklike veranderlikes soos funksionele kapasiteit, kreatienkinase konsentrasies (CK), c-reaktiewe proteïen konsentrasies (CRP), bloedlaktaat konsentrasie ([La]), spierseerheid en persepsie van vermoeienis (STEMS), en beenomtrekke was gemeet voor die inoefeningsessies op Dag 1, 2 en 3. Veranderinge in oefeningprestasie oor die laaste 2 dae was ook geassesseer. Daar was ‘n statistiese betekenisvolle toename in plasma [CK] (P < 0.05) en [CRP] (P < 0.001) oor die drie dae, wat daarop wys dat spierskade en inflammasie wel plaasgevind het. Daar was geen behandeling of interaksie effekte waarneembaar vir enige van die intervensies nie (P > 0.05). Bloed [La] was beduidend verlaag op Dag 2 vir die IB groep in vergelyking met die NB groep (P = 0.05). Die verlaging in plasma [CK] na AR het gegrens aan statisties betekenisvolle resultate (P = 0.05) in vergelyking met die waterterapie (IB en NB gekombineer). Daar was geen statisites beduidende tyd of interaksie effekte waargeneem in die % veranderinge in oefeningprestasie vir die laaste twee 100km tydtoetse tussen Dag 2 en 3 vir enige van die herstelstrategieë nie (P < 0.05) Die resultate wys dat waterterapie nie enige voordelige effekte op die na-inoefening herstel tempo het in vergelyking met aktiewe herstel nie. Dit is egter belangrik om daarop te let dat die fietsryers in staat was om hul oefeningprestasies te handhaaf oor die drie opeenvolgende dae, wat aandui dat waterterapie nie nadelig inwerk op uithouvermoë prestasie nie. Thesis (M Sport Sc (Sport Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.
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