Effect of aqua exercise on recovery of lower limb muscles after downhill running.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to examine how the recovery of physiological functioning of the leg muscles after high-intensity eccentric exercise such as downhill running could be promoted by aqua exercise for a period until the damaged muscle had recovered almost completely. Ten male long-distance runners were divided equally into an aqua exercise group and a control group. From the first day (Day 0) to the fourth day (Day 3), the participants completed a questionnaire on muscle soreness, and serum creatine kinase activity, muscle power, flexibility, whole-body reaction time and muscle stiffness were measured. After measurements on Day 0, the participants performed downhill running (three 5 min runs with a 5 min rest interval at -10%, 335.7 +/- 6.1 m . min-1). The aqua exercise group performed walking, jogging and jumping in water on three successive days following the downhill running on Day 0 for 30 min each day. Muscle power was reduced on Day 1 in the control group (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness in the calf on Day 3 was greater in the control group than that in the aqua exercise group (P < 0.05). In the aqua exercise group, muscle stiffness in the calf was less than that in the control group over 4 days (time main effect: P < 0.05; group x time interaction: P < 0.05). We conclude that aqua exercise promoted physiological functioning of the muscles in the legs after high-intensity downhill running for a period until the damaged muscles had recovered almost completely.
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ABSTRACT: 24, 48, and 72 hours following a 45 minute downhill run. Isokinetic strength, creatine kinase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, muscle soreness and mood states were assessed at baseline, 15 minutes, 3, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post-exercise. Significant time effects were observed for isokinetic knee flexion/extension at 60 and 180°/second, muscle soreness (p<0.05), muscle soreness (p<0.001) and POMS (p=0.013). A significant group by time interaction (p=0.027) was observed for POMS. The G-Trainer treadmill was unable to enhance muscle recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage.
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ABSTRACT: Water immersion is increasingly being used by elite athletes seeking to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery. Accelerated short-term (hours to days) recovery may improve competition performance, allow greater training loads or enhance the effect of a given training load. However, the optimal water immersion protocols to assist short-term recovery of performance still remain unclear. This article will review the water immersion recovery protocols investigated in the literature, their effects on performance recovery, briefly outline the potential mechanisms involved and provide practical recommendations for their use by athletes. For the purposes of this review, water immersion has been divided into four techniques according to water temperature: cold water immersion (CWI; ≤20 °C), hot water immersion (HWI; ≥36 °C), contrast water therapy (CWT; alternating CWI and HWI) and thermoneutral water immersion (TWI; >20 to <36 °C). Numerous articles have reported that CWI can enhance recovery of performance in a variety of sports, with immersion in 10-15 °C water for 5-15 min duration appearing to be most effective at accelerating performance recovery. However, the optimal CWI duration may depend on the water temperature, and the time between CWI and the subsequent exercise bout appears to influence the effect on performance. The few studies examining the effect of post-exercise HWI on subsequent performance have reported conflicting findings; therefore the effect of HWI on performance recovery is unclear. CWT is most likely to enhance performance recovery when equal time is spent in hot and cold water, individual immersion durations are short (~1 min) and the total immersion duration is up to approximately 15 min. A dose-response relationship between CWT duration and recovery of exercise performance is unlikely to exist. Some articles that have reported CWT to not enhance performance recovery have had methodological issues, such as failing to detect a decrease in performance in control trials, not performing full-body immersion, or using hot showers instead of pools. TWI has been investigated as both a control to determine the effect of water temperature on performance recovery, and as an intervention itself. However, due to conflicting findings it is uncertain whether TWI improves recovery of subsequent exercise performance. Both CWI and CWT appear likely to assist recovery of exercise performance more than HWI and TWI; however, it is unclear which technique is most effective. While the literature on the use of water immersion for recovery of exercise performance is increasing, further research is required to obtain a more complete understanding of the effects on performance.06/2013; 43(11). DOI:10.1007/s40279-013-0063-8
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. Despite physiological changes caused by immersion in liquid medium, few studies have been conducted to de- termine the kinetics of blood lactate removal under these conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of active recovery, using a specific water bike, on the blood lactate concentration after maximum intensity exercise. Material and me- thod. Ten healthy cycling athletes performed an Anaerobic Threshold Test by Heart Rate (HR) on a bicycle ergometer and an Anaerobic Threshold Test by Subjective Effort Perception on an aquatic bicycle ergometer. Three maximal test was per- formed immediately before each recovery type, in three different days: Passive Recovery on Land – PRL (horizontal position for 60 minutes), Passive Recovery in the Water – PRW (horizontal position, with the help of floats, in swimming pool for 60 minutes) and Active Recovery in the Water – ARW (the volunteer performed exercises on a water bicycle to an intensity cor- responding to 85% of the intensity of LA in water, for 30 minutes, and remained in the same position of the PRW for another 30 minutes). Blood samples were collected 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the maximal test, for lactate analysis. Results. The [La] blood did not show the difference between the three types of recovery at 5th min. From 15th min on, the difference be- tween the ARW and the other two types of passive recovery was significant, and the ARW showed lower values. There was no significant difference between the PRW and PRL. Conclusion. Mere immersion in water is not enough to maximize the removal of blood lactate. This study demonstrates that active recovery held in water is effective for the removal of blood lac- tate in cyclists.01/2011; 18(2):105-111. DOI:10.2478/v10197-011-0008-4