The BCL6 proto-oncogene: a leading role during germinal center development and lymphomagenesis.
ABSTRACT The BCL6 proto-oncogene encodes a nuclear transcriptional repressor, with pivotal roles in germinal center (GC) formation and regulation of lymphocyte function, differentiation, and survival. BCL6 suppresses p53 in GCB-cells and its constitutive expression can protect B-cell lines from apoptosis induced by DNA damage. BCL6-mediated expression may allow GCB-cells to sustain the low levels of physiological DNA breaks related to somatic mutation (SM) and immunoglobulin class switch recombination which physiologically occur in GCB-cells. Three types of genetic events occur in the BCL6 locus and involve invariably the 5' non-coding region and include translocations, deletions and SM actively targeted to the 5' untranslated region. These acquired mutations occur independently of translocations but may be involved in the deregulation of the gene and/or translocation mechanisms. The favorable prognostic value of high levels of BCL6 gene expression in NHL seems well-established. By contrast, the relevance of SM or translocation of the gene remains unclear. However, it is likely that non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) harboring the most frequent translocation involving BCL6, i.e. t(3;14), are characterized by a common cell of origin and similar oncogenic mechanisms. Several experiments and mouse models mimicking BCL6 translocation occurring in human lymphoma have demonstrated the oncogenic role of BCL6 and constitute a rational to consider BCL6 as a new therapeutic target in NHL. BCL6 blockade can be achieved by different strategies which include siRNA, interference by specific peptides or regulation of BCL6 acetylation by pharmacological agents such as SAHA or niacinamide and would be applicable to most type of B-cell NHL.
- SourceAvailable from: Gustavo Stolovitzky[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Regardless of how creative, innovative, and elegant our computational methods, the ultimate proof of an algorithm's worth is the experimentally validated quality of its predictions. Unfortunately, this truism is hard to reduce to practice. Usually, modelers produce hundreds to hundreds of thousands of predictions, most (if not all) of which go untested. In a best-case scenario, a small subsample of predictions (three to ten usually) is experimentally validated, as a quality control step to attest to the global soundness of the full set of predictions. However, whether this small set is even representative of the global algorithm's performance is a question usually left unaddressed. Thus, a clear understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of an algorithm most often remains elusive, especially to the experimental biologists who must decide which tool to use to address a specific problem. In this chapter, we describe the first systematic set of challenges posed to the systems biology community in the framework of the DREAM (Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods) project. These tests, which came to be known as the DREAM2 challenges, consist of data generously donated by participants to the DREAM project and curated in such a way as to become problems of network reconstruction and whose solutions, the actual networks behind the data, were withheld from the participants. The explanation of the resulting five challenges, a global comparison of the submissions, and a discussion of the best performing strategies are the main topics discussed.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2009; 1158(1). · 4.31 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Expression of the Growth Hormone (GH)-stimulated gene Socs2 (Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 2) is mediated by the transcription activator STAT5 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5) and the transcription repressor BCL6 (B-cell lymphoma 6). ChIP-Sequencing identified Cish (Cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein) and Bcl6 as having similar patterns of reciprocal occupancy by BCL6 and STAT5 in response to GH, though GH stimulates Cish and inhibits Bcl6 expression. The co-activator p300 occupied Socs2, Cish and Bcl6 promoters, and enhanced STAT5-mediated activation of Socs2 and Cish. In contrast, on Bcl6, p300 functioned as a repressor and inhibited in conjunction with STAT5 or BCL6. The co-repressor HDAC3 (Histone deacetylase 3) inhibited the Socs2, Cish and Bcl6 promoters in the presence of STAT5. Thus transcriptional outcomes on GH-regulated genes occupied by BCL6 and STAT5 are determined in a promoter-specific fashion by co-regulatory proteins which mediate the distinction between activating and repressive transcription factors.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 07/2014; · 4.24 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) protein, an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger transcription factor, showed to be highly expressed in various human cancers in addition to malignancies in the lymphoid system. This study investigated the role of BCL6 expression in breast cancer and its clinical significance in breast cancer patients.BMC Cancer 06/2014; 14(1):418. · 3.32 Impact Factor