Defining and diagnosing involuntary emotional expression disorder.
ABSTRACT Uncontrollable episodes of emotional expression occur in a variety of neurological conditions. This emotional disinhibition syndrome is characterized by episodes of crying or laughing that are unrelated to or out of proportion to the eliciting stimulus. This syndrome is common among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and traumatic brain injury and a variety of terms and definitions have been used to describe it. The confusing nomenclature has been a barrier to understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder. The authors propose a unifying term, involuntary emotional expression disorder (IEED), and provide diagnostic criteria for this disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is defined by episodes of involuntary crying and/or laughing as a result of brain injury or other neurological disease. Epidemiology studies show that 5.3%-48.2% of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have symptoms consistent with (or suggestive of) PBA. Yet it is a difficult and often overlooked condition in individuals with TBI, and is easily confused with depression or other mood disorders. As a result, it may be undertreated and persist for longer than it should. This review presents the signs and symptoms of PBA in patients with existing TBI and outlines how to distinguish PBA from other similar conditions. It also compares and contrasts the different diagnostic criteria found in the literature and briefly mentions appropriate treatments. This review follows a composite case with respect to the clinical course and treatment for PBA and presents typical challenges posed to a provider when diagnosing PBA.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 10/2014; 10:1903-10. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S63304 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a common complication of central nervous system diseases such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, and other neurological diseases, but it remains under-recognized and under-treated in the clinic. PBA caused by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has rarely been reported. Here, we report a 30-year-old Chinese woman who has experienced PBA from ADEM for 7 years. The patient's principal manifestations were extreme emotions or tears when she saw, heard, or spoke about sad news or other sad things; the durations of these unmanageable emotions were often less than 30 sec, and they occurred at frequencies that ranged from one to several times a day. Occasionally, she laughed uncontrollably while people were talking despite a lack of funny or sad stimuli in the conversation or the surrounding environment. Thus, her social functioning was impaired. This case indicates that the long-term PBA can occur secondarily to ADEM, and this possibility should be considered clinically to ensure timely identification and treatment.01/2015; 5:26210.
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ABSTRACT: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a common manifestation of brain pathology associated with many neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and traumatic brain injury. PBA is defined by involuntary and uncontrollable expressed emotion that is exaggerated and inappropriate, and also incongruent with the underlying emotional state. Dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q) is a combination product indicated for the treatment of PBA. The quinidine component of DM/Q inhibits the cytochrome P450 2D6-mediated metabolic conversion of dextromethorphan to its active metabolite dextrorphan, thereby increasing dextromethorphan systemic bioavailability and driving the pharmacology toward that of the parent drug and away from adverse effects of the dextrorphan metabolite. Three published efficacy and safety studies support the use of DM/Q in the treatment of PBA; significant effects were seen on the primary end point, the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale, as well as secondary efficacy end points and quality of life. While concentration-effect relationships appear relatively weak for efficacy parameters, concentrations of DM/Q may have an impact on safety. Some special safety concerns exist with DM/Q, primarily because of the drug interaction and QT prolongation potential of the quinidine component. However, because concentrations of dextrorphan (which is responsible for many of the parent drug's side effects) and quinidine are lower than those observed in clinical practice with these drugs administered alone, some of the perceived safety issues may not be as relevant with this low dose combination product. However, since patients with PBA have a variety of other medical problems and are on numerous other medications, they may not tolerate DM/Q adverse effects, or may be at risk for drug interactions. Some caution is warranted when initiating DM/Q treatment, particularly in patients with underlying risk factors for torsade de pointes and in those receiving medications that may interact with DM/Q.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2014; 10:1161-74. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S30713 · 2.15 Impact Factor