Glucocorticoid metabolism within superficial subcutaneous rather than visceral adipose tissue is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in South African women.
ABSTRACT Glucocorticoid hyperactivity in adipose tissue, due to up-regulation of local glucocorticoid reactivation by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11HSD1) or of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), may underpin susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome. This hypothesis has been tested extensively in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) but inadequately in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The aim of the study was therefore to examine expression of 11HSD1, GRalpha and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH), which supplies cofactor for 11HSD1, in abdominal adipose tissue compartments and to characterize their relation to metabolic syndrome parameters.
A cross-sectional study including 26 premenopausal South African women.
Biopsies were taken for measurement of mRNA levels by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 11HSD1 activity from VAT, and deep and superficial SAT compartments during elective surgery. Prior to surgery, blood pressure, blood lipid profile, body composition [by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan], body fat distribution [by computed tomography (CT) scan], and glucose tolerance were determined.
11HSD1 activity (P < 0.01) was higher in VAT than SAT, but 11HSD1 and GRalpha mRNA levels were not statistically different between compartments. 11HSD1 mRNA levels in superficial SAT correlated with VAT volume (R = 0.57, P < 0.01), insulin sensitivity calculated from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (R = -0.52, P < 0.016) and blood pressure (R = 0.48, P < 0.016). Apart from a correlation between deep SAT 11HSD1 activity and blood pressure (R = 0.72, P < 0.01), glucocorticoid action in deep SAT and VAT depots was not significantly associated with any metabolic syndrome parameters.
Increased capacity for glucocorticoid regeneration in superficial SAT but not VAT is associated with visceral adiposity and other features of the metabolic syndrome in women.
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ABSTRACT: Women of African ancestry, particularly those living in industrialized countries, experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to their white counterparts. Similarly, obesity and insulin resistance, which are major risk factors for T2D, are greater in black compared to white women. The exact mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not known. This paper will focus on the role of adipose tissue biology. Firstly, the characteristic body fat distribution of women of African ancestry will be discussed, followed by the depot-specific associations with insulin resistance. Factors involved in adipose tissue biology and their relation to insulin sensitivity will then be explored, including the role of sex hormones, glucocorticoid metabolism, lipolysis and adipogenesis, and their consequent effects on adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Finally the role of ectopic fat deposition will be discussed. The paper proposes directions for future research, in particular highlighting the need for longitudinal and/or intervention studies to better understand the mechanisms underlying the high prevalence of insulin resistance and T2D in women of African ancestry.Journal of obesity 01/2013; 2013:952916.
Article: Effects of proportions of dietary macronutrients on glucocorticoid metabolism in diet-induced obesity in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tissue glucocorticoid levels in the liver and adipose tissue are regulated by regeneration of inactive glucocorticoid by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) and inactivation by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases. A low carbohydrate diet increases hepatic 11beta-HSD1 and reduces glucocorticoid metabolism during weight loss in obese humans. We hypothesized that similar variations in macronutrient proportions regulate glucocorticoid metabolism in obese rats. Male Lister Hooded rats were fed an obesity-inducing ad libitum 'Western' diet (37% fat, n = 36) for 22 weeks, then randomised to continue this diet (n = 12) or to switch to either a low carbohydrate (n = 12) or a moderate carbohydrate (n = 12) diet for the final 8 weeks. A parallel lean control group were fed an ad libitum control diet (10% fat, n = 12) throughout. The low and moderate carbohydrate diets decreased hepatic 11beta-HSD1 mRNA compared with the Western diet (both 0.7+/-0.0 vs 0.9+/-0.1 AU; p<0.01), but did not alter 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue. 5Alpha-reductase mRNA was increased on the low carbohydrate compared with the moderate carbohydrate diet. Compared with lean controls, the Western diet decreased 11beta-HSD1 activity (1.6+/-0.1 vs 2.8+/-0.1 nmol/mcg protein/hr; p<0.001) and increased 5alpha-reductase and 5beta-reductase mRNAs (1.9+/-0.3 vs 1.0+/-0.2 and 1.6+/-0.1 vs 1.0+/-0.1 AU respectively; p<0.01) in the liver, and reduced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity (both p<0.01) in adipose tissue. Although an obesity-inducing high fat diet in rats recapitulates the abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism associated with human obesity in liver (but not in adipose tissue), a low carbohydrate diet does not increase hepatic 11beta-HSD1 in obese rats as occurs in humans.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(1):e8779. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Local metabolism of glucocorticoids in Prague hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats--effect of hypertriglyceridemia and gender.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11HSD1) is a microsomal NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase which elevates intracellular concentrations of active glucocorticoids. Data obtained from mouse strains with genetically manipulated 11HSD1 showed that local metabolism of glucocorticoids plays an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome. Tissue specific dysregulation of 11HSD1 was also found in other models of metabolic syndrome as well as in a number of clinical studies. Here, we studied local glucocorticoid action in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscles of male and female Prague hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats (HHTg) and their normotriglyceridemic counterpart, the Wistar rats. 11HSD1 bioactivity was measured as a conversion of [(3)H]11-dehydrocorticosterone to [(3)H]corticosterone or vice versa. Additionally to express level of active 11HSD1 protein, enzyme activity was measured in tissue homogenates. mRNA abundance of 11HSD1, hexoso-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was measured by real-time PCR. In comparison with normotriglyceridemic animals, female HHTg rats showed enhanced regeneration of glucocorticoids in the liver and the absence of any changes in SAT and skeletal muscle. In contrast to females, the glucocorticoid regeneration in males of HHTg rats was unchanged in liver, but stimulated in SAT and downregulated in muscle. Furthermore, SAT and skeletal muscle exhibited not only 11-reductase but also 11-oxidase catalyzed by 11HSD1. In females of both strains, 11-oxidase activity largely exceeded 11-reductase activity. No dramatic changes were found in the mRNA expression of H6PDH and GR. Our data provide evidence that the relationship between hypertriglyceridemia and glucocorticoid action is complex and gender specific.Steroids 06/2011; 76(12):1252-9. · 2.83 Impact Factor