Nutritional approach to restore impaired intestinal barrier function and growth after neonatal stress in rats
ABSTRACT Psychological stress during the neonatal period results in intestinal barrier dysfunction and growth alterations later in life. We aimed to restore impaired barrier function and growth rate by a nutritional intervention.
Male rat pups (n = 84) were assigned to 1 of 2 rearing conditions from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND14: S, separated 3 h/d from their mothers, or H, 15 min/d handled controls. From PND15 to PND35, rats received a control diet or a similar diet adapted to contain arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides and Lactobacillus paracasei NCC2461.
Maternal separation had only a minor impact on the measured gut barrier parameters at PND15, whereas it severely affected them at PND35. At this age, intestinal permeability to macromolecules was higher, mucin content in small intestinal tissues was lower and microbiota composition was altered in S compared with H animals. Feeding the adapted diet normalized the intestinal permeability, although it did not restore intestinal mucin content or microbiota. In addition, the adapted diet improved the growth rate recovery of the S animals after weaning and resulted in increased villus length in small intestine.
Our results suggest that an adapted diet containing specific long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, prebiotics and probiotics can revert the negative imprinting of neonatal stress on both intestinal barrier function and growth.
Holistic nursing practice 09/2014; 28(5):329-33. DOI:10.1097/HNP.0000000000000047 · 0.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Maternal protein restriction (PR) during pregnancy is known to have numerous adverse effects on offspring, including increased adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance later in life. A few studies have shown that this adverse programming can be reversed by dietary or hormonal therapies early in postnatal life. The objective of this study was to determine if a weaning diet high in prebiotic fiber could mitigate some of the negative effects of maternal PR, such as increased adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance. Wistar rats were fed a low- (8%) or normal- (20%) protein diet during pregnancy. Male and female pups were weaned onto control (C; 5% fiber, 20% protein) or high (prebiotic) fiber (HF; 21% wt:wt, 1:1 ratio oligofructose and inulin at 4-10 wk; 10% wt:wt, 1:1 ratio oligofructose and inulin at 10-24 wk; 17.3% protein) diets. At 24 wk of age, glucose tolerance, body composition, satiety hormones, gut microbiota, and markers of intestinal permeability were measured in the offspring. Maternal PR reduced offspring birth weight by 5% and lean mass by 9% compared with the C offspring (P < 0.007). HF-fed offspring had lower body weights and percentage body fat (∼23% in males, ∼19% in females) at 24 wk compared with C offspring (P < 0.02). Compared with C pups, pups fed the HF diet had greater cecal Bifidobacterium spp. (>5-fold) and plasma concentrations of the gut trophic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) (P < 0.05). In male PR offspring fed the HF diet, insulin resistance measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was reduced by 81% compared with those fed the C diet (P = 0.02). In female PR offspring fed the HF diet, plasma endotoxin was greater and colonic tight junction protein 1 (Tjp1) expression was lower compared with those fed the C diet. A high prebiotic fiber weaning diet mitigated increased adiposity and insulin resistance associated with maternal PR, which could improve health and decrease risk of chronic disease in offspring born to malnourished dams. However, the functional importance of sex-specific changes in markers of intestinal barrier function warrants further investigation.Journal of Nutrition 07/2014; 144(10). DOI:10.3945/jn.114.194142 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that murta infusions have been used to treat gut/urinary infections by native Chileans for centuries, the mechanisms promoting such effects still remain unclear. As a first attempt to unravel these mechanisms, human fecal samples were incubated in a medium containing water extract of murta leaves (ML) and the growth of different bacterial groups was evaluated. Control incubations were made in media containing fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and glucose as a carbon source. Phenolic compounds in the ML extract, likely promoters of bioactivity, were identified by HPLC–DAD–MSn. Concentrations (log10 CFU/mL) of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in media containing the extract and FOS were 7.33 ± 0.05/4.95 ± 0.20 and 6.44 ± 0.22/6.05 ± 0.06, respectively. Clostridia, anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae grew to a similar extent in media containing murta extract and FOS. In vitro tests (disk diffusion) showed that Gram‐positive (Bacillus and Paenibacillaceae) and Gram‐negative (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria isolated from fecal samples were sensitive to both water and 50/50 ethanol/water extracts of ML (28.4 μg gallic acid equivalents). At this concentration, the antimicrobial activity of ML extracts was significantly (P P > 0.05). No evidence of dependency between the antimicrobial activity of ML extracts and the enzymatic capability of the sensitive strains was found.Journal of Food Science 01/2012; 77(6). · 1.79 Impact Factor