Neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia: frequency, profile and associated care giver stress

Centre for Clinical Neuroscience Research, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.58). 02/2007; 78(1):36-42. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp.2005.083113
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To explore the profile of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PDD).
537 patients with PDD drawn from an international multicentre clinical trial of rivastigmine were assessed using the 10-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). A cluster analysis was used to investigate the inter-relationship of NPI items. Associations between the clusters and demographic and clinical variables were analysed.
89% of the patients presented at least one symptom on the NPI, 77% had two or more symptoms and 64% had at least one symptom with a score > or = 4. The most common symptoms were depression (58%), apathy (54%), anxiety (49%) and hallucinations (44%). Patients with more severe dementia and advanced Parkinson's disease had more neuropsychiatric symptoms. Nearly 60% of the care givers reported at least one NPI symptom to be of at least moderate severe distress. Five NPI clusters were identified: one group with few and mild symptoms (52%); a mood cluster (11%, high scores on depression, anxiety and apathy); apathy (24%; high apathy and low scores on other items); agitation (5%, high score on agitation and high total NPI score); and a psychosis cluster (8%; high scores on delusions and hallucinations). The psychosis and agitation clusters had the lowest Mini-Mental State Examination score and the highest Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and care giver distress scores.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in patients with PDD. The profile of these symptoms differs from that in other types of dementia. Subgroups with different neuropsychiatric profiles were identified. These subgroups may be associated with distinct neurobiological changes, which should be explored in future studies.

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: In Parkinson´s disease, researchers are becoming increasingly aware of the need to include the assessment of behavioural and psychological symptoms as important outcome measures in clinical trials. Besides, clinicians are starting to recognise the need to identify and manage these symptoms in addition to the motor ones. Our objective is to explore the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in geriatric patients with Parkinson and the associated distress in their caregivers. Methods: 100 patients with PD ageing 75 years old or more (50 PD without dementia and 50 PD Dementia (PDD) were assessed using the 10-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory-questionnaire (NPI-Q), and the NPI Caregiver Distress Scale (NPI-D). Results: The mean total NPI score was 12.9. At least one neuropsychiatric symptom was present in more than 80% of participants. Within PDD patients about 89% suffered at least one NPI symptom, 70% suffered at least 2 symptoms and one of those symptoms had an intensity scoring 4 of higher in more than 50%. Numbers in PD patients without dementia were significantly lower, though more than 50% of patients had at least 2 symptoms. The most frequent symptom was depression, followed by apathy, anxiety, depression and hallucinations. Antiparkinsonian agents can exacerbate psychotic symptoms. Nearly 60% of caregivers reported suffering a moderate to severe level of stress due to these symptoms. Symptoms causing more stress were agitation/aggression followed by hallucinations and irritability/lability. Conclusions: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequent in geriatric patients with PD –specially in patients with PDD– and lead to moderate to severe caregiver distress.
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    ABSTRACT: Apathy is a common feature of neurodegenerative disorders but is difficult to study in a clinical trial setting due to practical and conceptual barriers. Principal challenges include a paucity of data regarding apathy in these disorders, an absence of established diagnostic criteria, the presence of confounding factors (eg, coexisting depression), use of concomitant medications, and an absence of a gold-standard apathy assessment scale. Based on a literature search and ongoing collaboration among the authors, we present recommendations for the design of future clinical trials of apathy, suggesting Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease as models with relevance across a wider array of neuropsychiatric disorders. Recommendations address clarification of the targeted study population (apathy diagnosis and severity at baseline), confounding factors (mood/cognition, behavior, and treatment), outcome measures, study duration, use of comparators and considerations around environment, and the role of the caregiver and patient assent. This review contributes to the search for an optimal approach to study treatment of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 03/2015; DOI:10.1177/0891988715573534 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is one of the most common and persistent nonmotor syndromes occurring in 35% of patients diagnosed with PD. However, little information is known about the longitudinal study of its natural history of depression in PD. In this study, we identified 110 patients who are diagnosed with idiopathic PD and recruited them for assessing information about their PD related motor and nonmotor symptoms and rating scales. A follow-up evaluation was performed in 103 patients 30 months later. About 66.7% depressed patients at baseline were still depressed at follow-up, and 24.4% had incident depression among subjects without depression at baseline. Greater decline on MMSE (P = 0.029), higher baseline UPDRS-II (P < 0.001) score, change of UPDRS-II (P = 0.026), and female (P < 0.001) were associated with the worsening of HDRS scores. Higher baseline HDRS score (P < 0.001) and greater decline on MMSE (P = 0.001) were related to the occurrence of depression. In conclusion, cognitive decline is a disease related factor of worsening and the occurrence of depression. Activities of Daily Living (ADL) symptoms in PD and female gender may be crucial factors of increasing depressive symptoms.
    02/2015; 2015:362892. DOI:10.1155/2015/362892

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