In recent years, several countries have established surveillance systems for nosocomial infections (NIs) on a national basis. Limited information has been published on the effectiveness of these national surveillance systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether participation in the German national NI surveillance system [Krankenhaus Infektions Surveillance System (KISS)] resulted in reduced rates of NIs. Three major NIs were studied: ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and central-venous-catheter-related primary bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) in intensive care units (ICUs), and surgical site infections (SSIs) in surgical inpatients. Data were collected from January 1997 until December 2003. Only institutions that had participated in KISS for at least 36 months were considered for analysis. Data from the first 12 months of surveillance were compared with data from the second and third 12-month periods. One hundred and fifty ICUs and 133 surgical departments fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In their first year of participation in KISS, the ICUs had an average VAP rate of 11.2 per 1000 ventilator-days and a CR-BSI rate of 2.1 per 1000 catheter-days. The average SSI rate in the surgical inpatients was 1.6 per 100 operations in their first year of participation. Comparing the infection rates in the third year with the first year, the relative risk (RR) for VAP was 0.71 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.66-0.76] and the RR for CR-BSI was 0.80 (95% CI 0.72-0.90). The corresponding RR for SSI was 0.72 [95% CI 0.64-0.80]. Participation in KISS was associated with a significant reduction in these three NIs.
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"Surveillance programs provide data about the organisms causing specific infections and their antibacterial drug resistance patterns. Moreover, such programs can guide clinical practices and infection prevention and control efforts in different geographic regions and clinical settings [6,26,27]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abdominal surgery carries significant morbidity and mortality, which is in turn associated with an enormous use of healthcare resources. We describe the clinical course of 30 Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients who underwent abdominal surgery and showed severe infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 258 producing K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-Kp). The aim was to evaluate risk factors for mortality and the impact of a combination therapy of colistin plus recommended regimen or higher dosage of tigecycline.
A prospective assessment of severe monomicrobial KPC-Kp infections occurring after open abdominal surgery carried out from August 2011 to August 2012 in the same hospital by different surgical teams is presented. Clinical and surgical characteristics, microbiological and surveillance data, factors associated with mortality and treatment regimens were analyzed. A combination regimen of colistin with tigecycline was used. A high dose of tigecycline was administered according to intra-abdominal abscess severity and MICs for tigecycline.
The mean age of the patients was 56.6 +/- 15 and their APACHE score on admission averaged 22.72. Twenty out of 30 patients came from the surgical emergency unit. Fifteen patients showed intra-abdominal abscess, eight anastomotic leakage, four surgical site infection (SSI) and three peritonitis. The overall crude ICU mortality rate was 40% (12 out of 30 patients). Twelve of the 30 patients were started on a combination treatment of high-dose tigecycline and intravenous colistin. A significantly lower mortality rate was observed among those patients compared to patients treated with approved dose of tigecycline plus colistin. No adverse events were reported with high doses of tigecycline.
Critically-ill surgical patients are prone to severe post-surgical infectious complications caused by KPC-Kp. Timely microbiological diagnosis and optimizing antibiotic dosing regimens are essential to prevent worse outcomes. Further studies and well-controlled clinical trials are needed to define the optimal treatment of infections by KPC-Kp and, more generally, carbapenem-resistant bacteria.
"Surveillance of nosocomial infections (NIs) has become an integral part of infection control and quality assurance in many countries. Gastmeier et al. reported that effective surveillance could reduce the NI rate on average about 20–30% [1,2]. Surveillance programs provide data on the microbes causing specific NIs and their resistance to antibiotics. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Device-associated infection (DAI) plays an important part in nosocomial infection. Active surveillance and infection control are needed to disclose the specific situation in each hospital and to cope with this problem effectively. We examined the rates of DAI by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, and 30-day and in-hospital mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Prospective surveillance was conducted in a mixed medical and surgical ICU at a major teaching hospital from 2000 through 2008. Trend analysis was performed and logistic regression was used to assess prognostic factors of mortality.
The overall rate of DAIs was 3.03 episodes per 1000 device-days. The most common DAI type was catheter-associated urinary tract infection (3.76 per 1000 urinary catheter-days). There was a decrease in DAI rates in 2005 and rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, 3.18 per 1000 ventilator-days) have remained low since then (p < 0.001). The crude rates of 30-day (33.6%) and in-hospital (52.3%) mortality, as well as infection by antibiotic-resistant VAP pathogens also decreased. The most common antimicrobial-resistant pathogens were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (94.9%) and imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (p < 0.001), which also increased at the most rapid rate. The rate of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae also increased significantly (p < 0.05). After controlling for potentially confounding factors, the DAI was an independent prognostic factor for both 30-day mortality (OR 2.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.99-3.17, p = 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (OR 3.61, 95% CI 2.10-3.25, p < 0.001).
The decrease in the rate of DAI and infection by resistant bacteria on the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome can be attributed to active infection control and improved adherence after 2003.
"Several studies have demonstrated decreased HAI incidence shortly after the implementation of nation-wide surveillance [10-15]. For example, the Krankenhaus Infektions Surveillance System in Germany reported a 20% decline of nosocomial pneumonia incidence between the first and third years [11,16]. However, HAI rates at implementation of surveillance were high [10-12]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
The preventive impact of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) surveillance is difficult to assess. Our objective was to investigate the effect of HAI surveillance disruption on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence.
A quasi-experimental study with an intervention group and a control group was conducted between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2010 in two intensive care units (ICUs) of a university hospital that participated in a national HAI surveillance network. Surveillance was interrupted during the year 2007 in unit A (intervention group) and was continuous in unit B (control group). Period 1 (pre-test period) comprised patients hospitalized during 2004 to 2006, and period 2 (post-test period) involved patients hospitalized during 2008 to 2010. Patients hospitalized ≥48 hours and intubated during their stay were included. Multivariate Poisson regression was fitted to ascertain the influence of surveillance disruption.
A total of 2,771 patients, accounting for 19,848 intubation-days at risk, were studied; 307 had VAP. The VAP attack rate increased in unit A from 7.8% during period 1 to 17.1% during period 2 (P <0.001); in unit B, it was 7.2% and 11.2% for the two periods respectively (P = 0.17). Adjusted VAP incidence rose in unit A after surveillance disruption (incidence rate ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 4.47, P = 0.036), independently of VAP trend; no change was observed in unit B. All-cause mortality and length of stay increased (P = 0.028 and P = 0.038, respectively) in unit A between periods 1 and 2. In unit B, no change in mortality was observed (P = 0.22), while length of stay decreased between periods 1 and 2 (P = 0.002).
VAP incidence, length of stay and all-cause mortality rose after HAI surveillance disruption in ICU, which suggests a specific effect of HAI surveillance on VAP prevention and reinforces the role of data feedback and counselling as a mechanism to facilitate performance improvement.
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