Rats with unilateral median forebrain bundle, but not striatal or nigral, lesions by the neurotoxins MPP+ or rotenone display differential sensitivity to amphetamine and apomorphine.
ABSTRACT Rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP+) are two mitochondrial neurotoxins known to produce Parkinson's disease (PD) in experimental animals. In the present study, we compared drug-induced rotational asymmetry in rats lesioned using these neurotoxins at three distinct basal ganglia sites, the striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and median forebrain bundle (MFB). The levels of dopamine (DA) in the ipsilateral striata of these hemiparkinsonian animals were assayed employing an HPLC-electrochemical procedure 2 days after the final rotational study. Rats infused with rotenone or MPP+ into the SNpc, but not into the striatum or MFB, exhibited contralateral rotations immediately after recovery from anesthesia. Irrespective of the lesion site or the toxin used, all the animals exhibited ipsilateral rotations when challenged with D-amphetamine. Apomorphine administration caused contralateral circling behavior in MFB-lesioned animals, but ipsilateral rotations in rats that received rotenone or MPP+ in the striatum or SNpc. Stereotaxic administration of rotenone into the MFB, SNpc or striatum caused a significant loss of DA in the ipsilateral striatum to varying degrees (96%, 62% and 30%, respectively, as compared to the contralateral side). However, unilateral MPP+ administration into the MFB, SNpc or striatum caused respectively about 98%, 74% and 59% loss of striatal DA. Behavioural observations and the neurochemical results indicate that, among the three anatomically distinct loci-lesioned, MFB-lesioned animals mimicked behavioral aberrations similar to nigral lesions caused by 6-hydroxydopamine, a classical parkinsonian neurotoxin. Moreover, the results point out that while both d-amphetamine and apomorphine-induced rotations could be considered as valuable behavioral indices to test novel drugs against PD, yet apomorphine-induced contralateral bias proves to be a more reliable indicator of specific destruction in the nigrostriatal pathway and development of post-synaptic DA receptor supersensitivity.
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ABSTRACT: Unilateral intranigral administration of the oxidative metabolites of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-dihydropyridine (MPDP+) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+) produced dose-dependently a depletion of dopamine in the ipsilateral striatum of rats two weeks following treatment. d-Amphetamine and apomorphine induced circling toward the lesioned side in these unilaterally treated animals. No contralateral circling behavior was observed after challenging with apomorphine. This dopamine lesioning effect of MPP+ was not blocked by pretreatment of animals with a dopamine uptake blocker, GBR 12909. Furthermore, MPP+ increased the 45Ca accumulation into cells at the site of injection and produced "nonspecific" cell membrane and/or cytotoxic damage seen by histological procedures. These results indicate that MPDP+ and MPP+ produced localized cytotoxic damage to nigrostriatal neurons, caused a decrease in striatal dopamine, and disrupted the nigrostriatal system's functioning following intranigral administration to rats. It is postulated that the cationic surfactant properties of MPDP+ and MPP+ might contribute to its neurotoxic effects.Journal of Neural Transmission 02/1988; 74(2):75-86. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The patterns of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors were examined in the corpus striatum and related structures in the cat brain by quantitative autoradiography after in vitro radioligand binding with [3H]SCH23390 (D1 antagonist) and [3H]spiperone (D2 antagonist). Highly specific binding for both radioligands occurs in striatal structures known to receive dopaminergic input: the caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. However, the density of binding varies from one structure to another, and the density distribution within striatal nuclei is heterogeneous. In all but one portion of the striatum, the concentration of bound D1 radioligand ranges from 46 to 230% more than that of the D2 radioligand. The exception to this difference occurs at caudal putamenal levels where the two radioligands bind in equal concentrations (approximately equal to 220 fmol/mg tissue wet-weight). The highest density of both D1 and D2 radioligand binding occurs in irregular zones in the head and body of the caudate nucleus. Such high-density zones of D2 radioligand binding appear mainly in the dorsolateral part of the caudate's head. For the D1 radioligand, the high-density zones are more widespread throughout the caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and putamen. The D2 radioligand binding (but not the D1) also exhibits low-density zones at more caudal levels of the caudate nucleus, and these are often in register with the high-density zones of D1 radioligand binding. In the putamen, inverted concentration gradients exist for the two radioligands: the [3H]SCH23390 gradient runs from higher levels rostrally to lower levels caudally. The lowest levels of bound [3H]spiperone in the striatum occur in the nucleus accumbens-olfactory tubercle area, whereas the lowest binding of [3H]SCH23390 occurs in the caudal putamen. Pallidal and nigral structures show marked disparities in binding of the two different radioligands. The D2 radioligand binding in the globus pallidus (80 +/- 8 fmol/mg tissue wet-weight) is about twice that in the entopedunuclear nucleus and pars reticulata of the substantia nigra, the latter two having equal levels (35 +/- 3 fmol/mg). No specific binding of the D2 radioligand occurs in the ventral pallidum. In contrast, D1 radioligand binding is highest in the entopeduncular nucleus (217 +/- 6 fmol/mg) and in the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra (198 +/- 2 fmol/mg) and moderate in the ventral pallidum (135 +/- 15 fmol/mg). In the globus pallidus, no detectable D1 radioligand binding occurs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)The Journal of Comparative Neurology 03/1988; 268(1):131-45. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial toxins such as the complex 1 inhibitor rotenone are widely used as pesticides and may be present in military environments. Administration of rotenone can induce biochemical and histological alterations similar to those of Parkinson's disease in rats. However, only a subset of animals show these effects and it is unclear whether more subtle alterations are caused by chronic administration of rotenone in those animals that appear resistant to its toxic effects on dopaminergic nerve terminals. To address this question, vehicle or rotenone (2.0, 2.5, or 3.5 mg/kg/day) was administered intravenously or subcutaneously for 21 days to adult rats, and rotenone effects on survival, motor behavior, and striatal tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-IR) were examined. Both intravenous and subcutaneous rotenone induced a dose-dependent decrease in survival rates. Surviving animals showed a decrease in spontaneous rearing. Locomotor activity and movement initiation time were also altered in some of the experimental groups. Confirming previous results, TH-IR in the striatum was markedly decreased in rats that fell ill early in the study and in a few of the surviving rats with high rotenone doses. However, none of the surviving rats receiving 2.0 mg/kg/day showed TH-IR loss reminiscent of Parkinson's disease, and loss of striatal TH-IR across doses was not correlated with motor behavior in individual rats. Thus, chronic administration of low doses of rotenone induces motor anomalies even in animals that do not develop histological signs of Parkinson's disease, indicating a pervasive neurological effect of moderate mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.Experimental Neurology 07/2004; 187(2):418-29. · 4.65 Impact Factor