Rats with unilateral median forebrain bundle, but not striatal or nigral, lesions by the neurotoxins MPP+ or rotenone display differential sensitivity to amphetamine and apomorphine.
ABSTRACT Rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP+) are two mitochondrial neurotoxins known to produce Parkinson's disease (PD) in experimental animals. In the present study, we compared drug-induced rotational asymmetry in rats lesioned using these neurotoxins at three distinct basal ganglia sites, the striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and median forebrain bundle (MFB). The levels of dopamine (DA) in the ipsilateral striata of these hemiparkinsonian animals were assayed employing an HPLC-electrochemical procedure 2 days after the final rotational study. Rats infused with rotenone or MPP+ into the SNpc, but not into the striatum or MFB, exhibited contralateral rotations immediately after recovery from anesthesia. Irrespective of the lesion site or the toxin used, all the animals exhibited ipsilateral rotations when challenged with D-amphetamine. Apomorphine administration caused contralateral circling behavior in MFB-lesioned animals, but ipsilateral rotations in rats that received rotenone or MPP+ in the striatum or SNpc. Stereotaxic administration of rotenone into the MFB, SNpc or striatum caused a significant loss of DA in the ipsilateral striatum to varying degrees (96%, 62% and 30%, respectively, as compared to the contralateral side). However, unilateral MPP+ administration into the MFB, SNpc or striatum caused respectively about 98%, 74% and 59% loss of striatal DA. Behavioural observations and the neurochemical results indicate that, among the three anatomically distinct loci-lesioned, MFB-lesioned animals mimicked behavioral aberrations similar to nigral lesions caused by 6-hydroxydopamine, a classical parkinsonian neurotoxin. Moreover, the results point out that while both d-amphetamine and apomorphine-induced rotations could be considered as valuable behavioral indices to test novel drugs against PD, yet apomorphine-induced contralateral bias proves to be a more reliable indicator of specific destruction in the nigrostriatal pathway and development of post-synaptic DA receptor supersensitivity.
SourceAvailable from: Liliana MendietaNeuroscience Research 06/2009; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lactacystin is a selective UPS inhibitor recently used to destroy dopamine (DA) neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, both in vitro and in vivo studies show discrepancies in terms of the sensitivity of non-DA neurons to its toxicity. Therefore, our study was aimed to examine the toxic effect of intranigral administration of lactacystin on DA and non-DA neurons in the rat substantia nigra (SN), compared to the classic neurotoxin 6-OHDA. Tissue DA levels in the striatum and SN and GABA levels in the SN were also examined. Moreover, behavioral response of nigral GABAA receptors to locally administered muscimol was evaluated in these two PD models. We found that both lactacystin and 6-OHDA induced a strong decrease in DA level in the lesioned striatum and SN but only lactacystin slightly reduced GABA levels in the SN. A stereological analysis showed that both neurotoxins highly decreased the number of DA neurons in the SN, while only lactacystin moderately reduced the number of non-DA ones. Finally, in the lactacystin group, the number of contralateral rotations after intranigrally administrated muscimol was decreased in contrast to the increased response in the 6-OHDA model. Our study proves that, although lactacystin is not a fully selective to DA neurons, these neurons are much more vulnerable to its toxicity. Partial lesion of nigral non-DA neurons in this model may explain the decreased behavioral response to the GABAA agonist muscimol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Behavioural Brain Research 04/2015; 283:203-214. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.01.043 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim: The objective of the study was to develop regenerative therapy by transplanting varied populations of dopaminergic neurons, differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) in the striatum for correcting experimental parkinsonism in rats. Methods: mES differentiated by default for 7 days in serum-free media (7D), or by enhanced differentiation of 7D in retinoic acid (7R), or dopaminergic neurons enriched by manual magnetic sorting from 7D (SSEA-) were characterized and transplanted in the ipsilateral striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced hemiparkinsonian rats. Neurochemical, neuronal, glial and neurobehavioral recoveries were examined. Results: 7R and SSEA- contained significantly reduced NANOG and high MAP2 mRNA and protein levels as revealed, respectively, by reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunocytochemistry, compared with 7D. Striatal engraftment of 7D resulted in a significantly better behavioral and neurochemical recovery, as compared to the animals that received either 7R or SSEA-. The 7R transplanted animals showed improvement neither in behavior nor in striatal dopamine level. The grafted striatum revealed increased GFAP staining intensity in 7D and SSEA-, but not in 7R cells transplanted group, suggesting a vital role played by glial cells in the recovery. Substantia nigra ipsilateral to the side of the striatum, which received transplants showed more tyrosine hydroxylase immunostained neurons, as compared to 6-hydroxydopamine-infused animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that default differentiated mixed population of cells are better than sorted, enriched dopaminergic cells, or cells containing more mature neurons for transplantation recovery in hemiparkinsonian rats.CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 06/2014; 20(8). DOI:10.1111/cns.12295 · 3.78 Impact Factor