Multiple scales to evaluate breast cosmesis following breast conserving treatment (BCT) have been developed, however reliability is a problem. Panel scores, where scores from two or more individuals are combined, were assessed to examine their effect on reliability for two different cosmetic scales.
Women, two or more years following BCT, were recruited from a single breast centre. Photographs of each participant were evaluated independently by six health care professionals on two separate occasions. A simple four-point scale and more involved multi-item scale were used to assess cosmetic outcome. Reliability was assessed with the weighted kappa statistic for increasing panel sizes.
Ninety-nine women were evaluated. Intra rater reliability increased from 0.73 to 0.83 for the four-point scale, for increasing panel sizes, however 95% confidence intervals generally overlapped. A smaller and more unpredictable effect was seen on the multi-item subscale, range 0.69 to 0.73. Inter rater reliability increased from 0.68 to 0.93 for the four-point scale, and 0.75 to 0.96 for the multi-item scale, for increasing panel sizes; 95% confidence intervals did not overlap. A panel of three for either scale provided almost perfect kappa values with only small improvements with larger panel sizes.
Care should be used in interpreting results where cosmetic outcomes have been obtained from a single evaluator. Panel scores can be used to significantly improve inter-rater, but not intra rater reliability, for the scales studied. Comparable reliability, in combination with simplicity of use and interpretation, would favour the four-point scale for breast cosmetic evaluation over the multi-item scale.
"The existing literature does not provide a clear picture regarding ethnic differences in cosmetic outcome following BCT. This is in large part due to the fact that currently there is no consensus regarding optimal methods of measurement of cosmetic outcome following BCT.4,5 Numerous researchers from different disciplines, including plastic surgery,8,9 surgical oncology,10 radiation oncology,1,3,11–15 and even multidisciplinary teams,16–20 have assessed cosmetic outcomes, using a variety of techniques. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
One of the primary benefits of breast conserving therapy (BCT) is the potential ability to preserve the aesthetic appearance of the breast. However, current literature and clinical experience suggest that the aesthetic benefits of BCT may not be equally shared among ethnic groups. This is a pilot study that uses novel techniques to evaluate the cosmetic outcomes of African American and white women following BCT.
A total of 21 participants (10 African American and 11 white) completed the study. Cosmetic outcomes following BCT were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team using both quantitative and qualitative measures, including 3-dimensional photographic analysis and a pilot questionnaire. Preliminary measures were taken to evaluate the validity of the questionnaire.
There were no statistically significant differences in objective measures of breast symmetry between African American patients and white patients (P > 0.05 in all cases). However, all raters reported the African American patients to have worse breast symmetry and appearance when compared with white patients. Interrater reliability was found to be fair with regard to the nipple complex questions [intraclass correlation (ICC), 0.56], good with regard to the breast mound questions (ICC, 0.66), and poor with regard to the scar appearance questions (ICC = 0.32).
Although generalizing the results of this study is limited by the small sample size, it seems that there is a difference in the perception of cosmetic outcomes between white and African American patients. The novel techniques of cosmetic evaluation used in this study show promise toward identifying variables that can affect cosmetic outcome following BCT.
"Long-term aesthetic result will be evaluated by a panel of three independent blinded observers using the three-point, five-item breast aesthetic score on standardized five-view photographic documentation at 12-month follow-up [29,30]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two-stage tissue expander/implant (TE/I) reconstruction is currently the gold standard method of implant-based immediate breast reconstruction in North America. Recently, however, there have been numerous case series describing the use of one-stage direct to implant reconstruction with the aid of acellular dermal matrix (ADM). In order to rigorously investigate the novel application of ADM in one-stage implant reconstruction, we are currently conducting a multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to evaluate the impact on patient satisfaction and quality of life (QOL) compared to the two-stage TE/I technique.Methods/designsThe MCCAT study is a multicenter Canadian ADM trial designed as a two-arm parallel superiority trial that will compare ADM-facilitated one-stage implant reconstruction compared to two-stage TE/I reconstruction following skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) or nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. The source population will be members of the mastectomy cohort with stage T0 to TII disease, proficient in English, over the age of 18 years, and planning to undergo SSM or NSM with immediate implant breast reconstruction. Stratified randomization will maintain a balanced distribution of important prognostic factors (study site and unilateral versus bilateral procedures). The primary outcome is patient satisfaction and QOL as measured by the validated and procedure-specific BREAST-Q. Secondary outcomes include short- and long-term complications, long-term aesthetic outcomes using five standardized photographs graded by three independent blinded observers, and a cost effectiveness analysis.
There is tremendous interest in using ADM in implant breast reconstruction, particularly in the setting of one-stage direct to implant reconstruction where it was previously not possible without the intermediary use of a temporary tissue expander (TE). This unique advantage has led many patients and surgeons alike to believe that one-stage ADM-assisted implant reconstruction should be the procedure of choice and should be offered to patients as the first-line treatment. We argue that it is crucial that this technique be scientifically evaluated in terms of patient selection, surgical technique, complications, aesthetic outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and most importantly patient-reported outcomes before it is promoted as the new gold standard in implant-based breast reconstruction.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00956384.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optical wavelet domain reflectometry (OWDR) is proposed for the first time as a novel alternative to optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) and optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) to measure and characterize an optical fibre. We include a succinct review of system constraints and problems arising in OTDR and OFDR, describe the idea and design of OWDR, and show the considerable progress that we have made in dealing with the constraints and overcoming these problems with OWDR
Time-Frequency and Time-Scale Analysis, 1994., Proceedings of the IEEE-SP International Symposium on; 11/1994
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