Mechanism of recurrent/persistent ischemic/functional mitral regurgitation in the chronic phase after surgical annuloplasty: importance of augmented posterior leaflet tethering.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City, 890-8520, Japan.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 15.2). 08/2006; 114(1 Suppl):I529-34. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.000729
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Surgical annuloplasty can potentially hoist the posterior annulus anteriorly, exaggerate posterior leaflet (PML) tethering, and lead to recurrent ischemic/functional mitral regurgitation (MR). Characteristics of leaflet configurations in late postoperative MR were investigated.
In 30 patients with surgical annuloplasty for ischemic MR and 20 controls, the anterior leaflet (AML) and PML tethering angles relative to the line connecting annuli, posterior and apical displacement of the coaptation and the MR grade were measured by echocardiography before, early after, and late after surgery. Early after surgery, grade of MR and AML tethering generally decreased (P<0.01), whereas PML tethering significantly worsened (P<0.01). Nine of the 30 patients showed recurrent/persistent MR late after surgery. Compared with patients without late MR, those with the MR showed similar reduction in the annular area, significant re-increase in posterior displacement of the coaptation, and progressive worsening in PML tethering (P<0.05) late after surgery in comparison to the early phase. Both preoperative MR and late postoperative MR were significantly correlated with all tethering variables in univariate analysis. Although apical displacement of the coaptation was the primary determinant of preoperative MR (r2=0.60, P<0.0001), increased PML tethering was the primary determinant of late MR (r2=0.75, P<0.0001).
Whereas both leaflets tethering is related to preoperative ischemic MR, both leaflets tethering but with predominant contribution from augmented and progressive PML tethering is related to recurrent/persistent ischemic/functional MR late after surgical annuloplasty.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The surgical strategy for ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) remains controversial. Ischemic MR is a secondary valve disease caused by left ventricular (LV) remodeling and subsequent papillary muscle displacement, usually without structural valve lesions. Reduction annuloplasty is the standard surgical procedure for this condition, though it cannot clearly provide a survival benefit for those with LV dysfunction and is associated with a high prevalence of late recurrence of MR. The valvular procedure alone could be insufficient to treat ischemic MR in terms of long-term survival and the prevention of recurrence because ischemic MR is primarily a ventricular disorder. Thus, recent studies have focused on alternative procedures that target the primary cause of ischemic MR, the papillary muscles and left ventricle. We believe that the appropriate selection of surgical procedures among valvular, subvalvular, and even ventricular ones, considering the severity of LV remodeling for each patient would be more beneficial. Here we review recent studies featuring various surgical approaches to ischemic MR, especially with submitral procedures.
    General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 07/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since reduction annuloplasty alone for ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) cannot prevent late recurrence of MR or improve survival for those with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and the surgical approach to this etiology is still controversial, we conducted a study to assess the efficacy of the additional papillary muscle approximation (PMA) procedure for ischemic MR by comparing the different subtypes of PMA.
    Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 06/2014; 9(1):98. · 0.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Mitral annular/leaflet calcification (MALC) is frequently observed in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis (AS). However, the impact of MALC on mitral valve function has not been established. We aimed to investigate whether MALC reduces mitral annular area and restricts leaflet opening, resulting in non-rheumatic mitral stenosis. Methods: Real-time three-dimensional transoesophageal images of the mitral valve were acquired in 101 patients with degenerative AS and 26 control participants. The outer and inner borders of the mitral annular area (MAA) and the maximal leaflet opening angle were measured at early diastole. The mitral valve area (MVA) was calculated as the left ventricular stroke volume divided by the velocity time integral of the transmitral flow velocity. Results: Although the outer MAA was significantly larger in patients with AS compared to control participants (8.2±1.3 vs 7.3±0.9 cm2, p<0.001), the inner MAA was significantly smaller (4.5±1.1 vs 5.9±0.9 cm2, p<0.001), resulting in an average decrease of 45% in the effective MAA. The maximal anterior and posterior leaflet opening angle was also significantly smaller in patients with AS (64±10 vs 72±8°, p<0.001, 71±12 vs 87±7°, p<0.001). Thus, MVA was significantly smaller in patients with AS (2.5±1.0 vs 3.8±0.8 cm2, p<0.001). Twenty-four (24%) patients with AS showed MVA <1.5 cm2. Multivariate regression analysis including parameters for mitral valve geometry revealed that a decrease in effective MAA and a reduced posterior leaflet opening angle were independent predictors for MVA. Conclusions: Calcific extension to the mitral valve in patients with AS reduced effective MAA and the leaflet opening, resulting in a significant non-rheumatic mitral stenosis in one-fourth of the patients.
    Open Heart. 09/2014; 1.