Article

Prospective follow-up of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) into adolescence: Evidence for continuing cross-domain impairment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 489-499

Department of Psychology and Institute of Human Development, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1650, USA.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.85). 07/2006; 74(3):489-99. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.3.489
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The authors performed 5-year prospective follow-up (retention rate = 92%) with an ethnically diverse sample of girls, aged 11-18 years, who had been diagnosed in childhood with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 140) and a matched comparison group (N = 88). Hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were more likely to abate than inattentive symptoms. Across multiple domains of symptoms and functional impairment, girls with ADHD continued to display deficits of moderate to large effect size in relation to the comparison girls, but few differences emerged between the inattentive versus combined types. Follow-up effects withstood statistical control of crucial covariates for most outcomes, meaning that there were specific effects of childhood ADHD on follow-up status; in other instances, baseline disruptive disorders accounted for adolescent effects. For outcomes identical at baseline and follow-up, girls with ADHD showed more improvement across time than comparison girls (except for math achievement). Overall, ADHD in girls portends continuing impairment 5 years after childhood ascertainment.

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    • "There is considerable literature on the association between ADHD and aggression, and we will review only a few findings on this association so as to provide examples. For example, girls with ADHD are at higher risk than girls without ADHD in adolescence for overt (Hinshaw et al. 2006) and relational aggression (Zalecki and Hinshaw 2004). The findings of longitudinal studies indicate that, among children with ADHD, an early and persistent tendency to engage in physical fights is a strong predictor of adult violent behavior (e.g., Loeber et al. 1993; Loney et al. 1981; Weiss et al. 1985) and characterological disturbance (e.g., Antisocial Personality Disorder). "
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience impairments in a number of functional domains. Although current evidence-based treatments for ADHD reduce symptoms and improve academic and behavioral functioning, they have minimal impact on social functioning or on risky behaviors (see Evans et al. in J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol, 43:527–551, 2014 for review). Preliminary evidence indicates that emotion dysregulation (ED) is associated with impairments across the developmental spectrum, such as social impairment and risky behaviors, and that its relative absence/presence is differentially associated with treatment response. It thus stands to reason that by incorporating a focus on ED in interventions targeting social impairment and risky behaviors, we may be able to increase the number of youth who respond to such interventions and decrease the prevalence or degree of these impairments and behaviors among youth and adults with ADHD. However, a number of questions remain unaddressed about the association between ADHD and ED, such as the portion of individuals with ADHD who experience ED, the extent to which ED is associated with the above impairments and behaviors, and whether or not ED is malleable. To begin addressing these questions, we summarize and critically evaluate the literature on the association between ADHD and ED and make recommendations for future basic, translational, and treatment outcome research.
    Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10567-015-0187-5 · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    • "There is considerable literature on the association between ADHD and aggression, and we will review only a few findings on this association so as to provide examples. For example, girls with ADHD are at higher risk than girls without ADHD in adolescence for overt (Hinshaw et al. 2006) and relational aggression (Zalecki and Hinshaw 2004). The findings of longitudinal studies indicate that, among children with ADHD, an early and persistent tendency to engage in physical fights is a strong predictor of adult violent behavior (e.g., Loeber et al. 1993; Loney et al. 1981; Weiss et al. 1985) and characterological disturbance (e.g., Antisocial Personality Disorder). "
    Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 08/2015; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    • "Girls have been underrepresented in past studies on ADHD (Mahone and Wodka, 2008), probably due to the predominance of male subjects in clinical settings (Ramtekkar et al., 2010). Females with ADHD have fewer hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, more inattentive symptoms, present more commonly with the predominantly inattentive subtype and tend to be underdiagnosed when compared to boys with ADHD (Gaub and Carlson, 1997; Gershon, 2002; Hinshaw et al., 2006). Higher rates of anxiety, as well as lower rates of physical aggression and externalizing behaviors have also been found in girls when compared to boys with ADHD (Levy et al., 2005; Rucklidge, 2010; Skogli et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Female participants have been underrepresented in previous structural magnetic resonance imaging reports on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we used optimized voxel-based morphometry to examine grey matter volumes in a sample of 33 never-medicated children with combined-type ADHD and 27 typically developing (TD) children. We found a gender-by-diagnosis interaction effect in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), whereby boys with ADHD exhibited reduced volumes compared with TD boys, while girls with ADHD showed increased volumes when compared with TD girls. Considering the key role played by the ventral ACC in emotional regulation, we discuss the potential contribution of these alterations to gender-specific symptoms' profiles in ADHD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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