Effects of chronic treadmill running on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adult rat. Brain Res

Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Osaka University of Health and Sport Sciences, Asashirodai1-1, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0496, Japan.
Brain Research (Impact Factor: 2.84). 09/2006; 1104(1):64-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2006.05.066
Source: PubMed


Proliferating astrocytes and proliferating neuroblasts have been observed in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus of adult rats under normal conditions. However, whether these proliferating cells are stimulated by running has not been determined. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we examined the effects of chronic treadmill running on proliferating astrocytes (PCNA+/GFAP+ cells), proliferating neuroblasts (PCNA+/DCX+ cells) and newly generated postmitotic neurons (DCX+/NeuN+ cells) in the DG of the hippocampus of adult rats and also characterized the morphological features of PCNA+/GFAP+ cells and PCNA+/DCX+ cells. PCNA+/GFAP+ cells with few processes and PCNA+/DCX+ cells without long processes were detected in the SGZ, and we determined that these are morphological features of the astrocytes and neuroblasts with proliferative ability. Chronic treadmill running (at a speed of 22 m/min, 30 min/days for 7 days) significantly increased the numbers of PCNA+/GFAP+ cells and DCX+/NeuN+ cells, and the number of PCNA+/DCX+ cells tended to increase by chronic treadmill running. These results indicate that chronic treadmill running stimulates the proliferation of astrocytes in the SGZ. Furthermore, the present study indicates that chronic treadmill running increases DCX+/NeuN+ cells that are detected in a transient stage during the neuronal maturation process. These events may be the cellular basis mediating both running-induced increases of new neurons in the DG of the hippocampus and running-induced improvement of learning and memory functions of adult rats.

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    • "tive effect on the spatial memory performance ( Sampedro - Piquero et al . , 2013 , 2014b ) as well as other previous researches showing also the cognitive benefits after this type of exer cise ( Ang et al . , 2006 ; Alomari et al . , 2013 ) . Besides , the forced exercise has more similarity with human exercise training than voluntary protocols ( Uda et al . , 2006 ) because it lasts for a restricted period of time and some times its forced character reflects the attitude of many human subjects toward exercise . The idea of combining EE and forced exercise at the same time is new in animal models , but not in human research , where the combina tion of physical and mental activity has shown positiv"
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    Neuroscience 08/2015; 307. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.08.038 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Although the results differ somewhat from our hypothesis and previous studies (Kramer et al., 1999; Colcombe and Kramer, 2003; Hillman et al., 2006), improved general cognitive function was also observed in several studies that measured both general and selective improvement (Colcombe and Kramer, 2003) or general improvement only (Smith et al., 2010; Dai et al., 2013). Animal studies have indicated that physical activity leads to improvement in cognition-related molecular constructs, such as neurogenesis (Uda et al., 2006) and synaptogenesis (Eadie et al., 2005; Kempermann, 2008). Physical activity has also been linked to increased neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; Cotman and Engesser-Cesar, 2002), and relationships between exercise, BDNF, and cognition have recently been established in human studies (Kim et al., 2011; Coelho et al., 2013). "
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    Brain Research 10/2014; 1587(1). DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.08.068 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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