Acute biphenotypic leukemia arising in a patient with essential thrombocythemia

Department of Hematology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
American Journal of Hematology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 08/2006; 81(8):624-6. DOI: 10.1002/ajh.20651
Source: PubMed


Acute leukemia is an uncommon complication of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET). We describe a patient with ET, who transformed to acute biphenotypic leukemia 4 and 1/2 years after initial ET diagnosis. She had received hydroxyurea, anagrelide, and interferon, in different combinations and varying doses, before leukemic transformation. Acute biphenotypic leukemia was confirmed on bone marrow studies and immunophenotyping. Complete remission (CR) was achieved with induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia. This was followed with consolidation chemotherapy and the patient has remained in CR 9 months after initial induction chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is a rare event of acute biphenotypic leukemic transformation of a patient with ET.

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    ABSTRACT: A 72-year-old man was diagnosed with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and was treated with hydroxyurea for approximately 5 years. He was well until April 2007. In May 2007, a slight fall in hemoglobin levels was found. In June 2007, an upper endoscopy performed to investigate the cause of anemia showed multiple polypoid lesions in the body of the stomach. A gastric biopsy showed a diffuse infiltration of very immature cells. Several additional immunohistochemical staining showed that the cells were positive for CD13, CD34, CD117, and HLA DR, but negative for myeloperoxidase, CD42b, glycophorin, B cell marker, T cell marker, cytokeratin and desmin. We finally diagnosed the condition as myeloid sarcoma. Subsequently, the patient's ET transformed into acute myeloid leukemia. To our knowledge, this is an exceedingly rare event involving a patient with essential thrombocythemia.
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